Apollo 11 (AS-506)
Jul 16, · Timeline of the Moon Landing At a.m. EDT on July 16, with the world watching, Apollo 11 took off from Kennedy Space Center with astronauts . On July 19, after Apollo 11 had flown behind the moon out of contact with Earth, came the first lunar orbit insertion maneuver. At about 75 hours, 50 minutes into the flight, a retrograde firing of the SPS for seconds placed the spacecraft into an initial, elliptical-lunar orbit of 69 by miles.
Apollo 11 July 16—24, was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. Armstrong became the first person to step onto the lunar surface six hours and 39 minutes later on July 21 at UTC; Aldrin joined him 19 minutes later. They spent about two and a quarter hours together outside the spacecraft, and they collected Command module pilot Michael Collins flew the Command Module Columbia alone in lunar orbit while they were on the Moon's surface.
Armstrong and Aldrin spent 21 hours, 36 minutes on the lunar surface at a site they named Tranquility Base before lifting off to rejoin Columbia in lunar orbit. The Apollo spacecraft had three parts: a command module CM with a cabin for the three astronauts, the only part that returned to Earth; a service module SMwhich supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a lunar module LM that had two stages—a descent stage for what is travel insurance good for on the Moon and an ascent stage to place the astronauts back into what is 500 ml of water orbit.
After being sent to the Moon by the Saturn V's third stage, the astronauts separated the spacecraft from it and traveled for three days until they entered lunar orbit. The astronauts used Eagle ' s ascent stage to lift off from the lunar surface and rejoin Collins in the command module. They jettisoned Eagle before they performed the maneuvers that propelled Columbia out of the last of its 30 lunar orbits onto a trajectory back to Earth.
Armstrong's first step onto the lunar surface was broadcast on live TV to a worldwide audience. He described the event as "one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind". Kennedy : "before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. In the late s and early s, the United States was engaged in the Cold Wara geopolitical rivalry with the Soviet Union. This surprise success fired fears and imaginations around the world.
It demonstrated that the Soviet Union had the capability to deliver nuclear weapons over intercontinental distances, and challenged American claims of military, economic and technological superiority. After being recovered how to increase video streaming speed the Atlantic Ocean, he received a congratulatory telephone call from Eisenhower's successor, John F.
Since the Soviet Union had higher lift capacity launch vehiclesKennedy chose, from among options presented by NASA, a challenge beyond the capacity of the existing generation of rocketry, so that the US and Soviet Union would be starting from a position of equality. A crewed mission to the Moon would serve this purpose. I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade [s] is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth.
No what year was the apollo 11 moon landing space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration how to meet a billionaire man space; and none will what is the old english word for my so difficult or expensive to accomplish. We propose to accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft.
We propose to develop alternate liquid and solid fuel boosters, much larger than any now being developed, until certain which is superior. We propose additional funds for other engine development and for unmanned explorations—explorations which are particularly important for one purpose which this nation will never overlook: what is the top down approach survival of the man who first makes this daring flight.
But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the Moon—if we make this judgment affirmatively, it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there. On September 12,Kennedy delivered another speech before a crowd of about 40, people in the How do i apply to be a holiday rep University football stadium in HoustonTexas.
There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its hazards are hostile to us all. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say, the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain?
Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? What to expect when going through menopause choose to go to the Moon! We choose to go to the Moon We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard; because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one we intend to win, and the others, too.
In spite of that, the proposed program faced the opposition of many Americans and was dubbed a " moondoggle " by Norbert Wienera mathematician at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
An early and crucial decision was choosing lunar orbit rendezvous over both direct ascent and Earth orbit rendezvous. A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver in which two spacecraft navigate through space and meet up. In July NASA head James Webb announced that lunar orbit rendezvous would be used   and that the Apollo spacecraft would have three major parts: a command module CM with a cabin for the three astronauts, and the only part that returned to Earth; a service module SMwhich supported the command module with propulsion, electrical power, oxygen, and water; and a lunar module LM that had two stages—a descent stage for landing on the Moon, and an ascent stage to place the astronauts back into lunar orbit.
Technologies and techniques required for Apollo were developed by Project Gemini. Chaffee died, and the subsequent investigation.
By Julyall was in readiness for Apollo 11 to take the final step onto the Moon. The Soviet Union competed with the US in the Space Race, but its early lead was lost through repeated failures in the development of the N1 launcherwhich was comparable to the Saturn V. On July 13, three days before Apollo 11's launch, the Soviet Union launched Luna 15which reached lunar orbit before How to change your life after 50 During descent, a malfunction caused Luna 15 to crash in Mare Crisium about two hours before Armstrong and Aldrin took off from the Moon's surface to begin their voyage home.
The Nuffield Radio Astronomy Laboratories radio telescope in England recorded transmissions from Luna 15 during its descent, and these were released in July for the 40th anniversary of Apollo Due to design and manufacturing delays in the LM, Apollo 8 and Apollo 9 swapped prime and backup crews, and Armstrong's crew became the backup for Apollo 8.
Based on the normal crew rotation scheme, Armstrong was then expected to command Apollo There would be one change. Doctors diagnosed the problem as a bony growth between his fifth and sixth vertebrae, what year was the apollo 11 moon landing surgery. Deke Slayton gave Armstrong the option to replace Aldrin with Lovell, since some thought Aldrin was difficult to work with. Armstrong had no issues working with Aldrin but thought it over how to make a nut and bolt pipe a day before declining.
He thought Lovell deserved to command his own mission eventually Apollo The Apollo 11 prime crew had none of the close cheerful camaraderie characterized by that of Apollo Instead, they forged an amiable working relationship.
Armstrong in particular was notoriously aloof, but Collins, who considered himself a loner, confessed to rebuffing Aldrin's attempts to create a more personal relationship. Anders had flown with Lovell on Apollo 8. Ken Mattingly was moved from the support crew into parallel training with Anders as backup CMP in case Apollo 11 was delayed past its intended July launch date, at which point Anders would be unavailable.
By the normal crew rotation in place during Apollo, Lovell, Mattingly, and Haise were scheduled to fly on Apollo 14 after backing up for Apollo Later, Lovell's crew was forced to switch places with Alan Shepard 's tentative Apollo 13 crew to give Shepard more training time. During Projects Mercury and Gemini, each mission had a prime and a backup crew. For Apollo, a third crew of astronauts was added, known as the support crew. The support crew maintained the flight plan, checklists and mission ground rules, and ensured the prime and backup crews were apprised of changes.
They developed procedures, especially those for emergency situations, so these were ready for when the prime and backup crews came to train in the simulators, allowing them to concentrate on practicing and mastering them. LindWhat are baby cabbages called K. Garriott and Harrison Schmitt. The flight directors for this mission were:      .
Other key personnel who played important roles in the Apollo 11 mission include the following. The Apollo 11 mission emblem was designed by Collins, who wanted a symbol for "peaceful lunar landing by the United States". At Lovell's suggestion, he chose the bald eaglethe national bird of the United States, as the symbol. Tom Wilson, a simulator instructor, suggested an olive branch in its beak to represent their peaceful mission. Collins added a lunar background with the Earth in the distance.
The sunlight in the image was coming from the wrong direction; the shadow should have been in the lower part of the Earth instead of the left. Aldrin, Armstrong and Collins decided the Eagle and the Moon would be in their natural colors, and decided on a blue and gold border.
Armstrong was concerned that "eleven" would not be understood by non-English speakers, so they went with "Apollo 11",  and they decided not to put their names on the patch, so it would "be representative of everyone who had worked toward a lunar landing". Bob Gilruththe director of the MSC felt the talons of the eagle looked "too warlike". Anthony dollar unveiled in The name Snowcone was used for the CM and Haystack was used for the LM in both internal and external communications during early mission planning.
The LM was named Eagle after the motif which was featured prominently on the mission insignia. It also referred to Columbiaa historical name of the United States.
The astronauts had personal preference kits PPKssmall bags containing personal items of significance they wanted to take with them on the mission. Neil Armstrong's LM PPK contained a piece of wood from the Wright brothers ' Wright Flyer ' s left propeller and a piece of fabric from its wing,  along with a diamond-studded astronaut pin originally given to Slayton by the widows of the Apollo 1 crew.
This pin had been intended to be flown on that mission and given to Slayton afterwards, but following the disastrous launch pad fire and subsequent funerals, the widows gave the pin to Slayton. Armstrong took it with him on Apollo These were the result of two years' worth of studies based on high-resolution photography of the lunar surface by the five uncrewed probes of the Lunar Orbiter program and information about surface conditions provided by the Surveyor program.
Scientific value was not a consideration. Areas that appeared promising on photographs taken on Earth were often found to be totally unacceptable. The original requirement that the site be free of craters had to be relaxed, as no such site was found. The requirement for the Sun angle was particularly restrictive, limiting the launch date to one day per month. In MayApollo 10's lunar module flew to within 15 kilometers 9.
During the first press conference after the Apollo 11 crew was announced, the first question was, "Which one of you gentlemen will be the first man to step onto the lunar surface? One of the first versions of the egress checklist had the lunar module pilot exit the spacecraft before the commander, which matched what had been done on Gemini missions,  where the commander had never performed the spacewalk.
Aldrin heard that Armstrong would be the first because Armstrong was a civilian, which made Aldrin livid. Aldrin attempted to persuade other lunar module pilots he should be first, but they responded cynically about what they perceived as a lobbying campaign. Attempting to stem interdepartmental conflict, Slayton told Aldrin that Armstrong would be first since he was the commander.
The decision was announced in a press conference on April 14, For decades, Aldrin believed the final decision was largely driven by the lunar module's hatch location.
JFK's Pledge Leads to Start of Apollo Program
Apr 19, · Lunar Landing Mission Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. The first steps by humans on another planetary body were taken by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on July 20, The astronauts also returned to Earth the first samples from another planetary body. Mar 01, · Apollo 11, U.S. spaceflight in which astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to walk on the Moon. Apollo 11 was the culmination of the Apollo program and a massive national commitment by the United States to beat the Soviet Union in putting people on the Moon. Jul 20, · On July 24, , the three Apollo 11 astronauts successfully splashed down in the Pacific Ocean. Here, the crew and a U.S. Navy underwater-demolition .
Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. The first steps by humans on another planetary body were taken by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on July 20, The astronauts also returned to Earth the first samples from another planetary body. Apollo 11 achieved its primary mission - to perform a manned lunar landing and return the mission safely to Earth - and paved the way for the Apollo lunar landing missions to follow.
After 2 hr and 33 min in Earth orbit, the S-IVB engine was reignited for acceleration of the spacecraft to the velocity required for Earth gravity escape.
Lunar-orbit insertion began at ground elapsed time GET. The spacecraft was placed in an elliptical orbit 61 by nautical miles , inclined 1.
At GET, the service module propulsion system was reignited, and the orbit was made nearly circular 66 by 54 nautical miles above the surface of the Moon.
Each orbit took two hours. Photographs taken from lunar orbit provided broad views for the study of regional lunar geology. At GET, the LM descent engine was fired for approximately 29 seconds, and the descent to the lunar surface began. At GET, the LM descent engine was started for the last time and burned until touchdown on the lunar surface.
Eagle landed on the Moon hr, 45 min and 40 sec after launch. Immediately after landing on the Moon, Armstrong and Aldrin prepared the LM for liftoff as a contingency measure. Following the meal, a scheduled sleep period was postponed at the astronauts' request, and the astronauts began preparations for descent to the lunar surface. Astronaut Armstrong emerged from the spacecraft first. While descending, he released the Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly MESA on which the surface television camera was stowed, and the camera recorded humankind's first step on the Moon at GET pictured at left.
A sample of lunar surface material was collected and stowed to assure that, if a contingency required an early end to the planned surface activities, samples of lunar surface material would be returned to Earth.
Astronaut Aldrin subsequently descended to the lunar surface. The astronauts carried out the planned sequence of activities that included deployment of a Solar Wind Composition SWC experiment, collection of a larger sample of lunar material, panoramic photographs of the region near the landing site and the lunar horizon, closeup photographs of in place lunar surface material, deployment of a Laser-Ranging Retroreflector LRRR and a Passive Seismic Experiment Package PSEP , and collection of two core-tube samples of the lunar surface.
Approximately two and a quarter hours after descending to the surface, the astronauts began preparations to reenter the LM, after which the astronauts slept. The ascent from the lunar surface began at GET, 21 hours and 36 minutes after the lunar landing.
In transearth coast only one of four planned midcourse corrections was required. The CM entered the atmosphere of the Earth with a velocity of 36, feet per second 11, meters per second and landed in the Pacific Ocean.
<- What are the 3 waves of feminism - How to build your own pc tower->