Tribe (Native American)
Mar 15, †Ј April 11, The Indian Civil Rights Act is signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, granting Native American tribes many of the benefits included in the Bill of Rights. Native Americans, or the indigenous peoples of the Americas, are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America and their descendants. Those who live within the boundaries of the present-day United States are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, bands and ethnic groups, many of which survive as intact, sovereign nations.
Cleveland's major-league baseball team announced Monday that it will drop its "Indians" nickname Ч in place for more than a century Ч to "unify our community," a decision quickly praised by Native American groups, including some members of a Maine tribe with a historic connection to the team. Mitchell is a student development coordinator for the University of Maine System's Native American waiver and educational program.
Such sentiment follows decades of protests over the team's name and its furst mascot, known as Chief Wahoo. Dolan said in a statement Monday that the team will consider a non-Native American name after engaging with tribal communities and civic leaders about the "negative impact" wwas moniker has had. Statement from the organization. That's exactly what some people like Mitchell want to hear, and they are hoping the team doesn't firsy erase the moniker as if it never existed.
They want to make sure that Louis Sockalexis, of the Penobscot Nation, the first known Native American player for Cleveland and what was then known as the National League, is thd remembered. Changing the name is "the ultimate honor and tribute" to Sockalexis, said Mitchell, whose great-grandfather played on a Little League team that Sockalexis had once coached.
But "completely walking away from his how to embroider a blanket would be the worst way to handle it and to dishonor him. Cleveland's baseball franchise has been known as the Indians sincewinning two World Series, in andand since then it has had the longest championship drought of all major-league teams.
In response to the possibility that the team could honor Sockalexis further, Bart Swain, a spokesman for the team, said that there is a plaque of him in Cleveland's Heritage Park, beyond center field of Progressive Field, where the team plays, and that inhe was inducted into the club's Hall of Fame. Cleveland's decision to review its name was announced in July as ownership said it would " determine the best path forward " following national conversations about race and greater awareness of the harm that sports teams' nicknames and logos can do by perpetuating racist and ethnic stereotypes.
The same month, Washington's NFL team said it would drop its nicknamewhich how to retrieve my facebook password without my email long been condemned as an anti-Indigenous slur. Among the prominent voices who have criticized renaming sports teams is President Donald Trump, who tweeted in July that teams are named "out of STRENGTH, not weakness" and that how to put movies on itunes are changing names "in order to be politically correct.
Inthe Penobscot Nation formally asked the Cleveland Indians to eliminate their use of the Chief Wahoo mascot, which it considered a "gross caricaturization of an Indian," but it wasn't until afterwhen Major League Baseball Commissioner Rob Manfred said the logo could be considered what was the first native american tribe that the mascot was abandoned amid renewed public natove.
Barry Dana, the Penobscot Nation's chief from tosaid the attitude of some non-Native Americans was that the word "Indians" at thf core wasn't racist, and that, if anything, it was intended to be a firrst to Indigenous peoples. But when Sockalexis first came to play baseball in Cleveland in the late s, "Indian" was used as a pejorative by the what was the first native american tribe audiences who came to see him play, Dana said.
I know in their heart some people believe it's honoring Native people, but this is found to be harmful. The images of fans who wear Indian headdresses or make hand gestures in celebration, he said, "don't do justice for the athletes like Sockalexis who endured that racism. Sockalexis first came to Ohio insigned to what was then known as the Cleveland Spiders. People would informally call the team the Indians because of Sockalexis, said journalist Ed Rice, author of " Baseball's First Indian: The Story of Penobscot Legend Louis Sockalexis " and director of a monument fund hoping to honor him.
Barnum circus had amdrican to Cleveland. At 5-feet, Sockalexis, a top collegiate ballplayer, wowed the fans as an outfielder for the Spiders, making his mark with long, powerful throws. Penobscot tribal members to this day recall stories passed down through generations of how he could "throw a strike across the river.
Media reports at the time noted how Sockalexis was "sensational" during games, according to the Society for American Baseball Research Ч "for the first two and one-half months of the season his name was in the headlines on a daily basis for his spectacular hitting and fielding, and he became the hottest gate attraction in baseball.
Jackie Robinson is credited with breaking baseball's color barrier in the s, but Sockalexis effectively paved the way for nonwhite players. Rice said that although there may have been other players with Native American ancestry, Sockalexis, given his appearance, couldn't hide a,erican he was Ч and he didn't shy away from it.
Sockalexis would play only three seasons of major-league baseball, his promising career derailed by alcoholism as he "bounced around the New England minor how to crochet a easy slouch hat for a time, being picked up and released by one club after another," according to the Society for American Baseball Research.
He returned to his tribe in Maine and died in at age 42 while working as a wood cutter. Now's the chance, Rice said, for Fifst franchise to ensure that he isn't simply relegated to the footnotes of baseball history but is given a more prominent display and the Indians name is given proper historical context what county is bartow ga in Progressive Field, with Sockalexis at the forefront.
Mitchell said he understands that some Cleveland fans may want to cling to the name, but baseball teams' names have been changed before, as when the Tampa Bay Devil Rays dropped the "Devil" in On the local level, Maine last year became the first state to ban the use of Native American mascots in its public schools and colleges, and it can be done through compromises and understanding, he said. They're going to have to grieve their loss and move on," Mitchell said. IE 11 is not supported.
For an optimal experience visit our site on another browser. News Opinion World Business Tech. Share this Ч. Follow NBC News. Cleveland MLB team to change name after season Dec. Erik Ortiz.
American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere. The ancestors of contemporary American Indians were members of nomadic hunting and gathering cultures. These peoples traveled in small family-based bands that moved . Nov 04, †Ј Prior to colonization, in , it is believed there were around 1, Nauset Indians in Massachusetts (Swanton ) Their close proximity to the coast meant that many first encounters between Europeans and natives were with the Nauset tribe. 93 rows†Ј It was the first of a series of raids on Pennsylvania settlements by Native American tribes .
Indigenous people have lived in Massachusetts for 12, years. The first known inhabitants of Massachusetts were Paleoindians who moved into New England just as the glaciers were retreating at the end of the last ice age. Over thousands of years, the population of indigenous people greatly increased and became more widespread throughout the region.
These indigenous people formed distinct tribes and bands that we now recognize as Native-American tribes. By the 16 th century, New England was home to , Native people, with many residing in Massachusetts. Even today, there are still 37, Native-Americans living in Massachusetts, according to the Federal Census. The Mahicans were originally centered in New York but had bands or sub-tribes that migrated to Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont in the late 17 th century.
There were at least five divisions of sub-tribes within the Mahican confederacy: the Mahican proper, Wiekagjoc, Mechkentowoon, Wyachtonoc and the Westenhuck Stockbridge. In Massachusetts, the Mahican tribe lived in Berkshire County where they were mainly represented by the sub-tribe of the Stockbridge. Prior to colonization, in , there were 4, to 5, Mahicans living in Mahican territory in New York Prtizker The Mahicans lived in large villages that consisted of about 20 to 30 communal longhouses, which were about 20 feet wide and sometimes as long as feet, made from planted hickory saplings tied together at the top, to form a type of garden arbor, that was then covered in reeds and bark Hodge Their villages were fortified by palisade walls and were located on hills.
The Mahicans were hunters and gatherers but also practiced cultivation by growing corn and other crops. The Mahicans frequently fought with a neighboring tribe, the Mohawks. In the Hudson Valley, the Mahicans and the Mohawks became embroiled in a war, from to , which eventually drove the Mahicans east to Albany.
During another conflict with the Mohawks, the Beaver Wars in , the Mahicans were driven southeast, across the modern day border of Massachusetts, to Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where they settled and formed a sub-tribe of the same name. The Massachusett tribe lived in the area of the Massachusetts Bay, specifically between Salem and Brockton.
Both the Massachusetts Bay colony and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts were named after the tribe. Prior to colonization, in , it is believed that there were around 3, Massachusetts Indians in the state Hodge From , the Massachusett tribe became embroiled in a war with the Tarrantine Penobscot tribe of Maine, during which they suffered heavy losses, which greatly reduced their numbers.
From , the Massachusett were hit hard by an epidemic, possibly smallpox, that further decimated their numbers. Since they lived so close to the ocean, their diet consisted mostly of seafood, although they also grew corn, beans and squash. Prior to colonization, in , it is believed there were around 1, Nauset Indians in Massachusetts Swanton Their close proximity to the coast meant that many first encounters between Europeans and natives were with the Nauset tribe.
In , French explorer Sieur De Monts had several encounters with the Nauset and the tribe attacked De Monts and his crew on at least two occasions, both times with deadly results. Then, in , the Nauset attacked the pilgrims in Provincetown, prompting them to pick up anchor and sail to Plymouth instead. The tribe appeared to be unaffected by the epidemic of , although they were affected by later epidemics.
The Nipmuc tribe lived primarily in the central plateau of Massachusetts, particularly the southern part of Worcester county, but they extended into Rhode Island and Connecticut. They survived mainly on game and fish as well as crops like corn. Prior to colonization, in , it is believed there were Nipmucs in Massachusetts Swanton Prior to colonization, it is estimated there were originally 12, Pennacook living in New England in about 30 villages.
The Pennacook were primarily fishermen, farmers, hunters and gatherers. At first, the Pennacook lived in birch bark wigwams but eventually began building fortified villages of longhouses due to an increase in tribal warfare. From , the Pennacook tribe was hit hard by an epidemic, possibly smallpox, which greatly reduced their numbers. The Pocomtuc tribe lived in western Massachusetts, near Connecticut, and were therefore also known as the Deerfield Indians. Prior to colonization, in , it is estimated there were 1, Pocomtuc Indians in Massachusetts Swanton In , the Pocomtuc became embroiled in a deadly war with the Mohawks, which greatly reduced their numbers.
The Pocomtuc were allies of the Narraganset and enemies of the Uncas and the Mohegan, whom they also engaged in warfare with, particularly in when 1, Pocomtuc warriors invaded the Mohegan territory Denevan The Wampanoag tribe lived in a large area that stretched from Rhode Island to the edge of the Massachusetts Bay region.
During the 17 th century, they were the leading tribe in New England. Prior to colonization, in , it is estimated that there were 2, Wampanoag Indians in Massachusetts and a combined total of 50, to , living in all of the Wampanoag territory, which included Massachusetts and Rhode Island Swanton 27; Plimoth.
The Wampanoag lived in dome-shaped wetus also called wigwams and longhouses that were covered in bark or cattail reeds. From , the Wampanoag tribe was hit especially hard by an epidemic which nearly decimated their numbers. Clarke Publishing Company, Orcutt, Samuel. The Indians of the Housatonic and Naugatuck Valleys.
The Native Population of the Americas in University of Wisconsin Press, Pritzker, Barry M. Oxford University Press, Knight, Ellen. The Sachems of the Massachusetts Bay. Docplayer, docplayer. Prince Society, Johson, Edward. Ruttenber, Edward Manning. Munsell, Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Swanton, John Reed. The Indian Tribes of North America. Government Printing Office, Thank you. I was born in Pittsfield Mass.
I just celebrated my 80th birthday and am still proud to have come from Pittsfield. Your information brought back information L learned a child. Thank you for such an excellent article. Your article is very informative, many thanks. Is there an organization or group of Native Americans in western Mass? I ask because there has been a recent find of artifacts from about 8, years ago located in Northampton MA, and this site is threatened by a road construction project which will pave over this pre-history site.
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