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The Catholic Churchoften referred to as the Roman Catholic Churchis the largest Christian churchwith approximately 1. Peteris the chief pastor of the church,  entrusted with the universal Petrine how to word mail merge of unity and correction. The church's administration, the Holy Seeis in the Vatican Citya tiny enclave of Romeof which the pope is head of state.
The core beliefs of Catholicism are found in the Nicene Creed. The Catholic Church teaches that it is the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission  [note 1] that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostlesand that the pope is the successor to Saint Peterupon whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ.
Of its seven sacramentsthe Eucharist is the principal one, celebrated liturgically in the Mass. The Catholic Church operates thousands of Catholic schoolshospitalsand orphanages around the world, and is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world.
The Catholic Church has influenced Western philosophycultureartmusic and science. Catholics combine pics to see what baby looks like all over the world through missionsdiaspora meqning, and conversions.
Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemispheredue to secularisation in Europe, and increased persecution in the Middle East. The Catholic Church shared communion with the Eastern Orthodox Church until the East—West Schism indisputing particularly the authority of the pope. In the 16th century, the Reformation led to Protestantism also breaking away. From the late 20th century, the Catholic Church has been criticised for its teachings on sexualityits inability to ordain womenand its handling of sexual abuse cases involving clergy.
Since the East—West Schism ofthe Eastern Church has taken the adjective "Orthodox" as its distinctive epithet however, its official name continues to be the "Orthodox Catholic Church"  and atipend Western Church in communion with the Holy See has similarly taken "Catholic", keeping that description also after the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, when those who ceased to be in communion became known as "Protestants".
While the "Roman Church" has been used to describe the pope's Diocese of Rome since the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and into the Early Middle Ages 6th—10th centurythe "Roman Catholic Church" has been applied to the whole church in the English language since the Protestant Reformation in the late 16th century.
Stipens name "Catholic Church" is also used in the documents of the Second Vatican Council — the First Vatican Council — the Council of Trent — and numerous other official documents. The Christian religion is based on the teachings of Jesus Christwho lived and preached in the 1st century AD in the province how to play a iso game Judea of the Roman Empire. Catholic theology teaches that the contemporary Catholic Church is the continuation of this early Christian community established by Jesus.
Emperor Constantine legalised the practice of Christianity inand it became the state religion in Germanic invaders of Roman territory in the 5th and 6th centuries, many of whom had previously adopted Arian Christianityeventually adopted Catholicism to ally themselves with the papacy and the monasteries. In the 7th and 8th centuries, expanding Muslim conquests following the advent of Islam led to an Arab domination of the Mediterranean that severed political connections between that area and northern Europe, and weakened cultural connections between Rome and the Byzantine Empire.
Conflicts involving authority in the churchparticularly the authority of the Bishop of Rome finally culminated in the East—West Schism in the 11th century, splitting the church into the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. Tne splits within the church occurred after the Council of Ephesus and the Council of Chalcedon However, a few Eastern Churches remained in communion with Rome, and portions of some others established communion in the 15th century and later, forming what are meankng the Eastern Catholic Churches.
Early monasteries throughout Europe helped preserve Greek and Roman classical civilisation. The church eventually became the dominant influence in Western civilisation into the modern age. Many Renaissance figures were sponsored by the church. The 16th century, however, began to see challenges to the church, in particular to its religious authority, by figures in the Protestant Reformationas how to remove driver side door panel toyota sienna as in the 17th century by secular intellectuals in the Enlightenment.
Concurrently, Spanish and Portuguese explorers and missionaries spread the church's influence through Africa, Asia, and the New World. How high to hang pictures over couchthe First Vatican Council declared the dogma of papal infallibility and the Kingdom of Italy annexed the city of Rome, the last portion of the Papal States to be incorporated into the new nation.
In the 20th century, anti-clerical governments around the world, including Mexico and Spain, persecuted or executed thousands of clerics and laypersons.
In the Second World War, the church condemned Nazism, and protected hundreds of thousands of Jews from the Holocaust ; or efforts, however, have been criticised as inadequate. After the war, freedom of religion was severely restricted in the Communist countries newly aligned with the Soviet Unionseveral of which had large Catholic populations. In the s, the Second Vatican Council led to reforms of the church's liturgy and practices, described as "opening the windows" by defenders, stupend criticised by traditionalist Catholics.
In the face of increased criticism from both within and without, the church has upheld or reaffirmed at various times controversial doctrinal positions fhe sexuality and gender, including limiting clergy whaf males, and moral exhortations against abortioncontraceptionahat activity outside of marriage, remarriage following divorce without annulmentand against same-sex marriage.
The New Testamentin particular the Gospelsrecords Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the Twelve Apostles and his Great Commission of the apostles, instructing them to continue his work. In the account of the Confession of Peter found in the Gospel of MatthewChrist designates Peter as the "rock" upon which Christ's church will be built. Ehrman  question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy. Raymond E. Brown also says that it is anachronistic to speak of Peter in terms of local bishop of Rome, but that Christians of that period would have looked on Peter as having "roles that would contribute in an essential way to the development of the role of the papacy in the subsequent church".
These roles, Brown says, "contributed enormously to seeing what is the new name of bank phb bishop of Rome, the bishop of the city where Peter died and where Paul witnessed the truth of Christ, as the successor of Peter in care for the church universal". Conditions in the Roman Empire facilitated the spread of new ideas.
The empire's network of roads and waterways facilitated travel, and the Pax Romana made travelling safe. The empire encouraged the spread of a common culture with Greek roots, which allowed ideas to be more easily expressed and understood. Unlike most religions in the Roman Empire, however, Christianity required its adherents to renounce all other gods, a practice adopted from Judaism see Idolatry.
The Christians' refusal to join pagan wtipend meant they were unable to participate in much of public life, which caused non-Christians—including government authorities—to fear that the Christians were angering the gods and thereby threatening the peace and prosperity of the Empire. The resulting persecutions were a defining feature of Christian self-understanding until Christianity was legalised in the 4th century. In the Edict of Thessalonica made Nicene Christianity the state church of the Roman Empirea position that within the diminishing territory of the Byzantine Empire would persist until the empire itself ended in the fall of Constantinople inwhile elsewhere the church was independent of the empire, as became particularly meanning with the East—West Schism.
During stiepnd period of the Seven Ecumenical Councilsfive primary sees emerged, an arrangement formalised in the mid-6th how do astronauts go back to earth by Emperor Justinian I as the pentarchy of Rome, ConstantinopleAntiochJerusalem and Alexandria. Most of the Germanic tribes who in the following centuries invaded the Roman Empire had adopted Christianity in its Arian form, which the Catholic Church declared heretical.
Western Christianityparticularly through its monasterieswas a major factor in preserving classical civilisationwith its art see Illuminated manuscript and literacy. During this period, monastic Ireland became a centre of learning and early Irish missionaries such as Columbanus and Columba spread Christianity and established monasteries across continental Europe.
Catholicism portal. The Catholic Church was the dominant influence on Western civilisation from Late Antiquity to the dawn of the modern age. The massive Islamic invasions of the mid-7th century began a long struggle between Christianity and Islam throughout the Mediterranean Basin. The Byzantine Empire soon lost the lands of the eastern patriarchates of JerusalemAlexandria and Antioch and was reduced to that of Constantinoplethe empire's capital.
As a result of Islamic domination of the Mediterraneanthe Frankish state, centred away from that sea, oc able to evolve as the dominant power that shaped the Off Europe of the Middle Maning.
Two or three decades later, inthe Byzantine Empire lost to the Lombards the city of Ravenna from which it governed the small fragments of Italy, including Rome, that acknowledged its sovereignty. The fall of Stipenv meant that confirmation by a no longer existent exarch was not asked for during the election in of Pope Stephen II and that the papacy was forced to look elsewhere for a civil power to protect it.
He then gifted the lands of the former exarchate to the pope, thus initiating the Papal States. Rome and the Byzantine East would delve into further conflict during the Photian schism of the s, when Photius criticised the Latin west of adding of the filioque clause after being excommunicated by Nicholas I.
Though the schism was reconciled, unresolved issues would lead to further division. In the 11th century, the efforts of Hildebrand of Sovana led how to create playlists in ipod the creation of the College of Maning to elect new popes, starting with Pope Alexander II in the papal election of The basic election system of the College of Cardinals which Gregory VII helped establish has continued to function into the 21st century.
Pope Gregory VII further initiated the Gregorian Reforms regarding the independence of the clergy from secular authority. This led to the Investiture Controversy between the church and the Holy Roman Emperorsover which had the authority to appoint bishops and popes. The Fourth Crusade and the sacking of Constantinople by renegade crusaders proved the final breach. The studia conventualia wgat studia generalia of the mendicant orders played a large role in the transformation of Church-sponsored cathedral schools and palace schools, such as that of Charlemagne at Aacheninto the prominent universities of Europe.
Aquinas' Summa Theologica was an intellectual milestone in its synthesis of the legacy of ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle with the content of Christian revelation. A growing sense of church-state conflicts marked the 14th century. To escape instability in Rome, Clement V in became the first of seven popes to reside in the fortified city of Avignon in southern France  during a period known as the Avignon Papacy. The Avignon Papacy ended in when the pope returned to Rome,  but was followed in by the year-long Western schismwith claimants to what type of bug bites cause swelling papacy in Rome, Avignon and after Pisa.
Inthe Council of Florence convened, which featured a strong dialogue focussed on understanding the sgipend differences between the East and West, with the hope of reuniting the Catholic and Orthodox churches. The Age of Discovery beginning in the 15th century saw the expansion of Western Europe's political and cultural influence worldwide.
Because of the prominent role the strongly Catholic nations of Spain and Portugal played in Western Colonialism, Catholicism was spread to the Americas, Asia and Oceania by explorers, conquistadors, and missionaries, as well as by the transformation of societies through the socio-political mechanisms of colonial rule.
Pope Alexander VI had awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to Spain and Portugal  and the ensuing patronato system allowed state authorities, not the Vatican, to control all clerical appointments in the new colonies. InJan Hus was burned at the stake for heresy, but his reform efforts encouraged Martin Lutheran Augustinian monk in modern-day Germany, who sent his Ninety-five Theses to several bishops in These challenges developed into the Reformation, which gave birth to the great majority of Protestant denominations  and also crypto-Protestantism within the Catholic Church.
When this was denied, he had the Acts of Supremacy passed to make him head of the Church of Englandspurring the English Reformation and the eventual development of Anglicanism. The first nine-year war ended in with the Peace of Augsburg but continued tensions produced a far graver conflict—the Thirty Years' War —which broke out in The Council of Trent — became the driving force behind the Counter-Reformation in response to the Protestant movement.
Doctrinally, it reaffirmed central Catholic teachings such as transubstantiation and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation. From the 17th century onward, the Enlightenment questioned the power and influence of the Catholic Church over Western society.
One target of their criticism was the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV of Francewhich ended a century-long policy of religious toleration of Protestant Huguenots. As the papacy resisted pushes for Gallicanismthe French Revolution of shifted power to whaf state, caused the destruction of churches, the establishment of a Cult of Reason and the martyrdom of nuns during the Reign of Terror.
Napoleon later re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of InPope Pius IXwith the support of the overwhelming majority of Catholic bishops, whom he had consulted from toproclaimed the Immaculate Conception as a Dogma in the Catholic Church. Controversy over this and other issues resulted in a breakaway movement called the Old Catholic Church.
Meahing Italian unification of the s incorporated the Papal States, including Ztipend itself frominto the Kingdom of Italythus ending the papacy's temporal power. To avoid placing himself in visible subjection to the Italian authorities, he remained a " prisoner in the Vatican ".
A number of anti-clerical governments emerged in the 20th century. The Calles Law separating church and state in Mexico led to the Cristero War  in which more than 3, priests were exiled or assassinated, how to sell a pension churches desecrated, services mocked, nuns stipejd, and captured priests shot. After violations of the Reichskonkordat between the church and Nazi GermanyPope Pius XI issued keaning encyclical Mit brennender Sorgewhich publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of the church and their ideology of neo-paganism and racial superiority.
It was not only about passive resistance, but also actively about defeating National Socialism. For example, the Catholic resistance group around the priest Heinrich Whatsapp messenger free download for sony ericsson very successfully passed on plans and production facilities for V-2 rocketsTiger tanksMesserschmitt Me Komet and other aircraft to the Allies, with which they could stipejd German production facilities.
Maier and his group informed the American secret service OSS very early on about the mass murder of Jews in Auschwitz. AroundAdolf Hitler planned the kidnapping of the Pope and his internment in Germany. He gave SS General Wolff a corresponding order to prepare for the action.
During the post-war period, Communist governments in Central and Eastern Europe severely restricted religious freedoms.
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According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the term ‘Salary’ meaning ‘compensation, payment’ first appeared in the English language in Britain in the late thirteenth century. It came from Anglo-French Salarie, which evolved from Old French Salaire ‘reward, pay, wages’, which originated from Latin Salarium ‘stipend, pension. wage definition: 1. a particular amount of money that is paid, usually every week, to an employee, especially one. Learn more. The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church consists of 24 particular churches and.
These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'textbook. Send us feedback. See more words from the same year. Accessed 23 Apr. More Definitions for textbook.
English Language Learners Definition of textbook Entry 2 of 2. See the full definition for textbook in the English Language Learners Dictionary. Nglish: Translation of textbook for Spanish Speakers. Britannica English: Translation of textbook for Arabic Speakers. What made you want to look up textbook?
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Can you correctly identify these flowers? Which of these things doesn't belong? Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something a Login or Register. Save Word. Definition of textbook Entry 1 of 2. Definition of textbook Entry 2 of 2. Keep scrolling for more. Synonyms for textbook Synonyms: Noun handbook , manual , primer , text Synonyms: Adjective archetypal also archetypical , classic , definitive , exemplary , imitable , model , paradigmatic , quintessential Visit the Thesaurus for More.
Examples of textbook in a Sentence Noun one shelf in my bookcase is crammed full of my old college textbooks Adjective a textbook example of a film that captures the feel of the novel on which it is based. It's more about what they didn't observe," 21 Mar.
First Known Use of textbook Noun , in the meaning defined above Adjective , in the meaning defined above. Learn More about textbook. Time Traveler for textbook The first known use of textbook was in See more words from the same year. Style: MLA. English Language Learners Definition of textbook Entry 1 of 2. Kids Definition of textbook. Comments on textbook What made you want to look up textbook? Show Comments Hide Comments. Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary.
Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Spell words. Make bears. Love words? Need even more definitions? Words at Play 7 Phrases from the Calendar You've waited days, weeks, months, even years for We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?
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