The noun UNDERDEVELOPMENT has 2 senses: 1. state of inadequate development. 2. (photography) inadequate processing of film resulting in inadequate contrast. Familiarity information: UNDERDEVELOPMENT used as a noun is rare. According to the United Nations experts, “an underdeveloped country is one in which per capita real income is low when compared with the per capita real income of the United States of America, Canada, Australia and Western Europe. In this sense, an adequate synonym would be poor countries.”.Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins.
All economies of the world are not equally developed. Some how to cut music on windows media player more developed and advanced than others.
Therefore, the economics of the world have been classified into developed economies and under-developed economies. Previously, the undeveloped economies were called backward economies and the developed economies were known as advanced economies. But the terms backward and advanced are now considered unsatisfactory and misleading.
Therefore, the terms developed and under-developed began to be used in place of advanced and backward. But it is not easy to give a precise definition of an under-developed economy. In this sense, an adequate synonym would be poor countries. But poverty is not always an adequate criterion to judge whether a country is what essay means in spanish or under-developed.
For a country to be called under-developed there must be unutilised or under-utilised natural resources which may be used for production to raise per capita income and standards of living of the people.
If the resources of a country are meagre and scanty, then even after having fully developed them, it will remain poor. Professor Ragnar Nurkse also gave a definition of an under-developed country. This is because lack of capital is not the only cause of under-development and poverty. There are other important factors which are responsible for low income and poverty of the people of the developing countries. Growth and development do not merely depend upon capital accumulation.
Capital is necessary but not a sufficient condition of progress. Thus, Professor Viner has emphasized that for a country to be called under-developed there must be possibilities and potentialities for its development. In other words, in an underdeveloped country resources must be how to work with wordpress unutilised which can be used for increasing the rate of production and thereby raising the level of living of the people.
Thus, according to him, the basic criterion of under-development is whether there exists potential prospects for development and raising standards of living of the people. Similar to Professor Viner, Eugene Staley has also provided a definition. Thus Eugene Staley lays emphasis on the existence of poverty as well as the potentialities for development and raising standards of living.
We conclude that under-developed country is one which is poor but which has the future possibility and prospect of removing poverty and raising the levels of living of its people by utilising the idle and under-utilised resources for production. Since there exists potential prospects for development in almost all poor countries, therefore all how to make a cool intro countries are generally described as underdeveloped.
These days the under-developed countries are usually called developing or less developed countries LDCs. The developing countries are also called the Third World countries. The low income economies are generally described as developing economies, while high income economies are called developed economies. The developed or high-income countries which include the United States, U. The per capita incomes of some developing and developed countries are given in Table India with a population of Table It may be noted that all high per capita income countries are not developed countries.
For example, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and some other oil-producing and exporting countries have a high per capita income but their richness is due to their being oil-abundant countries and higher prices of exports of oil since s rather than the developed nature of their economies.
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The original meaning of underdevelopment was a neutral one, simply defining the condition of poorer countries which then were called underdeveloped countries. However, this term was felt to be derogatory and has since disappeared from the international vocabulary, being replaced by the more euphemistic ‘developing countries’.Estimated Reading Time: 2 mins.
Underdevelopment , relating to international development , reflects a broad condition or phenomena defined and critiqued by theorists in fields such as economics , development studies , and postcolonial studies.
Used primarily to distinguish states along benchmarks concerning human development—such as macro-economic growth , health, education, and standards of living —an "underdeveloped" state is framed as the antithesis of a " developed ", modern, or industrialized state. Popularized, dominant images of underdeveloped states include those that have less stable economies, less democratic political regimes, greater poverty , malnutrition , and poorer public health and education systems.
Underdevelopment per Walter Rodney is primarily made of two components, a comparative aspect as well the relationship of exploitation: namely, the exploitation of one country by another. In critical development and postcolonial studies, the concepts of "development", "developed", and "underdevelopment" are often thought of to have origins in two periods: first, the colonial era, where colonial powers extracted labor and natural resources, and second most often in referring development as the postwar project of intervention on the so-called Third World.
Mexican activist Gustavo Esteva asserted that underdevelopment began when American president Harry Truman delivered his inaugural address in since, after the second world war , poverty on a mass scale was suddenly "discovered" in these underdeveloped regions of the world.
Esteva stated: "On that day two billion people became underdeveloped. When the world began to categorize nations based on their economic status, it narrowed the issue of underdevelopment to an economics problem.
As a result, the solutions brought forth by development experts and practitioners were squarely economic—failing to address the profound political and social contexts such as colonial legacies and Cold War geopolitics. The Green Revolution is a paradigm of a concerted effort of intervention in the name of global development. During this time, developed countries, in an attempt to modernize the global agricultural sector, sought to export the industrial agricultural model of production.
At the start of the Green Revolution, the U. This occurred until developing countries, such as India, became heavily dependent on the food aid—much of which were crops that could not be grown locally.
In order for dependent countries to keep receiving foreign assistance, the U. The West believed that hunger had the power to drive people to peasant revolutions, so food aid was used explicitly to fight the spread communism.
In order for yields to actually increase, farmers needed fertilizers, pesticides, and new irrigation systems, a costly chain of requirements that cut profits for the farmers even when their yields rose. The countries that were dependent on food aid now became dependent on the transnational corporations that provided agricultural inputs that the industrial model required. The Green Revolution was able to increase crop yields at least in the short term, before land was degraded by the increased need for fertilizers and pesticides , but in the process it exacerbated vulnerable populations' poverty in countries that are now considered underdeveloped.
Seminal economist Adam Smith surmised not only that a nation's prosperity depends on free markets, but also that coastal geography - easy access to sea trade - plays an important part. Compared with Europe, large proportions of Africa, Asia and the Americas are far from the ocean. Jeffrey Sachs and his collaborators have demonstrated this relationship of geography with underdevelopment more systematically, pointing out that this relationship is also mediated by factors of agricultural productivity and disease prevalence.
Jared Diamond has proposed that continental alignment also played a part: the east-west alignment of Europe-Asia allowed diffusion of useful agricultural species, while the north-south alignments of the Americas and Africa inhibited such diffusion. This highlights the positive role played by Western countries in modernizing and facilitating development in the non-West. It is often contrasted with dependency theory. In the midth century, the world leaders that had emerged from the Second World War saw the former colonies as areas that needed increasing amounts of intervention because their populations were the subjects of much suffering.
It became a moral imperative for developed nations, primarily the U. The modernization theory, growing out of U. Dependency theory reflects the body of midth century theories by various intellectuals, both from the Third World and the First World , that suggest that the wealthy nations of the world need a subjugated peripheral group of poorer states in order to remain wealthy.
Dependency theory states that the poverty of the countries in the periphery is not because they are not integrated into the world system, but because of how they are integrated into the system. These poor nations provide natural resources, cheap labor, and consumer markets for the wealthy nations, without which, according to dependency theorists, they could not have the standard of living they enjoy.
First world nations actively, but not necessarily consciously, perpetuate a state of dependency through various policies and initiatives. This state of dependency is multifaceted, involving economics , media control , politics , banking and finance , education , sport and all aspects of human resource development.
This is rare, however, and dependency is enforced far more by the wealthy nations setting the rules of international trade and commerce. Dependency theory first emerged in the s, advocated by Raul Prebisch whose research found that the wealth of poor nations tended to decrease when the wealth of rich nations increased.
The theory quickly divided into diverse schools. Former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso wrote extensively on dependency theory while in political exile. The American sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein refined the Marxist aspect of the theory, and called it the " world system.
The semi-periphery is composed of countries such as Brazil and South Africa that can't simply be categorized as part of the core or the periphery i. World systems theory also states that the dynamic of surplus extraction that occurs between nations also occurs within them, between their elite and poor classes.
According to this structure, which includes a core, a periphery, and a semi-periphery, not every nation can develop simultaneously which directly challenges the linear model of modernization which suggests that all countries are on the trajectory of development.
WST instead argues that development and underdevelopment are created simultaneously. According to Brazilian social scientist, Theotonio Dos Santos, dependence means a situation in which certain countries economies' are conditioned by the development and expansion of another to which the former is subject.
Guyanese Marxist historian and political activist and one of the leading theorists on underdevelopment Walter Rodney contends in reference to Africa's underdevelopment, "The decisiveness of the short period of colonialism and its negative consequences for Africa spring mainly from the fact that Africa lost power. Power is the ultimate determinant in human society, being basic to the relations within any group and between groups.
It implies the ability to defend one's interests and if necessary to impose one's will by any means available. In relations between peoples, the question of power determines maneuverability in bargaining, the extent to which a people survive as a physical and cultural entity. When one society finds itself forced to relinquish power entirely to another society, that in itself is a form of underdevelopment". Rodney also elaborates on his broader theory of underdevelopment and the issues of using the term especially in reference to comparing economies, saying "Actually, if 'underdevelopment' were related to anything other than comparing economies, then the most underdeveloped country in the world would be the U.
A, which practices external oppression on a massive scale, while internally there is a blend of exploitation, brutality, and psychiatric disorder. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
M; Harding, Vincent How Europe underdeveloped Africa. Washington, D. ISBN Princeton: Princeton University Press. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Cambridge: Polity Press. Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. ISSN JSTOR PMID Guns, germs, and steel : The fates of human societies 1st ed. New York: W. OCLC Rostow, Walt Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Journal of Third World Studies. Archived from the original on Retrieved 23 June Categories : International development. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Pages containing links to subscription-only content Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January Namespaces Article Talk.
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