How Bourbon Whiskey Is Made
How Bourbon Whiskey Is Made An Illustrated Description of the Production of Bourbon When you ask the master distiller of a bourbon distillery about the strongest influences in bourbon production, you get the following answer: the grain, the yeast strains, the new white oak barrels and their storage have the biggest influence on the taste of bourbon. The 15 Best Bourbons You Can Buy in
Bourbon is an American Whiskey produced mainly in the southern part of Kentucky State. The type of grain used will affect the style and flavors of the whiskey. There are specific guidelines that distiller's must follow in order to put the word bourbon on the label.
The Process - Most bourbon starts with sour mash. It is taken from a previous batch of mash crushed grain going through the fermentation processset out to sour overnight, and then added to a new batch. The process is much like that of starting a sourdough bread. The Recipe - Bourbon is distilled from a ks mash of grain, yeast and water.
Length of Aging - Bourbon must be aged for a minimum of two years. Many premium bourbons on the market are aged between 5with some as long as 27 years. The Barrel - Bourbon must be aged in brand new barrels which are made of white oak and have been charred on the inside. Brands determine the varying levels of char for their barrels from 1 to 4.
Flavor Ч By law nothing can be added how to reheat rare prime rib bottling except water. Nothing is added that might enhance flavor, add sweetness or alter color. Proof - Bourbon is feom at between 80 and proof. Only water may be used to lower the proof of the alcohol.
Location Ч Bourbon can be made anywhere in the US. Rye is the second grain used in Bourbon, it adds dry, spicy, peppery flavors to the character of the whiskey. Examples of Bourbons with high rye content include. Wheat adds elegance and a soft, smooth character, often with hints of nuts and cinnamon.
Whiskeys with high wheat content include. Check out our Bourbon Glossary as you choose your next whiskey! What to pair with your bourbon whiskey? Visit Bourbon Eats for some delicious inspiration and popular recipes! Just like enjoying bourbon, there are many ways to experience it by staying in a variety of places from romantic how to say sweetie in japanese to vibrant downtown cities.
Home Trip Planner Trip Planner 0. What Is Bourbon? Traditional Bourbon Knob Creek rye content approx. The bourbon enters new charred white oak casks for aging at no boufbon than The bourbon must state its age on the label if the maturation time is less than four years. Popular Bourbon Eats What how to commentate on minecraft pair with your bourbon whiskey? Newsletter Signup. Subscribe Frok Thanks.
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An Illustrated Description of the Production of Bourbon
Jun 12, †Ј The Federal Standards of Identity for Bourbon stipulate what is and what isn't bourbon. For a whiskey to call itself bourbon, its mash, the mixture of grains from which the product is distilled. According to US Trade Legislation, a УbourbonФ is a type of whiskey where the УmashbillФЧwhich is the recipe of grains used to produce the whiskeyЧ consists of 51% - 80% corn. Typically, distillers use approximately 70% corn content and are free to choose other grains for the remainder of the mashbill. Aug 25, †Ј Bourbon Is Made With At Least 51 Percent Corn What makes bourbon distinct from other whiskeys is the way it is manufactured and aged. All .
The name ultimately derives from the French Bourbon dynasty , although the precise inspiration for the whiskey's name is uncertain; contenders include Bourbon County in Kentucky and Bourbon Street in New Orleans , both of which are named after the dynasty. As of , distillers' wholesale market revenue for bourbon sold within the U. It was recognized in by the United States Congress as a "distinctive product of the United States".
Bourbon sold in the United States must be produced in the U. Distilling was most likely brought to present-day Kentucky in the late 18th century by Scots, Scots-Irish , and other settlers including English, Irish, Welsh , German, and French who began to farm the area in earnest. The origin of bourbon as a distinct form of whiskey is not well documented.
There are many conflicting legends and claims, some more credible than others. For example, the invention of bourbon is often attributed to Elijah Craig , a Baptist minister and distiller credited with many Kentucky firsts e. Although still popular and often repeated, the Craig legend is apocryphal. Similarly, the Spears story is a local favorite but is rarely repeated outside the county.
There likely was no single "inventor" of bourbon, which developed into its present form in the late 19th century. Essentially, any type of grain can be used to make whiskey, and the practice of aging whiskey and charring the barrels for better flavor had been known in Europe for centuries. He proposes the whiskey was named after Bourbon Street in New Orleans , a major port where shipments of Kentucky whiskey sold well as a cheaper alternative to French cognac.
Another proposed origin of the name is the association with the geographic area known as Old Bourbon , consisting of the original Bourbon County in Virginia organized in This region included much of today's Eastern Kentucky, including 34 of the modern counties. When American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution , the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in and named after the French royal family.
While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon.
Located within Old Bourbon was the principal port on the Ohio River , Maysville, Kentucky , from which whiskey and other products were shipped. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had ever tasted. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey. Although many distilleries operated in Bourbon County historically, no distilleries operated there between , when Prohibition began in Kentucky, and late , when a small distillery opened Ч a period of 95 years.
With the ratification of the 18th amendment in , all distilleries were forced to stop operating, although a few were granted permits to bottle existing stocks of medicinal whiskey. Later, a few were allowed to resume production when the stocks ran out. Stitzel Distillery.
A refinement often dubiously  credited to James C. Crow is the sour mash process, which conditions each new fermentation with some amount of spent mash. Spent mash is also known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain , stillage, and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed. The acid introduced when using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work.
A concurrent resolution adopted by the United States Congress in declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States" and asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government In recent years, bourbon and Tennessee whiskey , which is sometimes regarded as a different type of spirit but generally meets the legal requirements to be called bourbon, have enjoyed significant growth in popularity.
Bourbon's legal definition varies somewhat from country to country, but many trade agreements require that the name "bourbon" be reserved for products made in the United States. The U. But in countries other than the United States and Canada, products labeled bourbon may not adhere to the same standards. For example, in the European Union, products labeled as bourbon are not required to conform to all the regulations that apply within the United States, although they still must be made in the U.
Bourbon has no minimum specified duration for its aging period. In addition, any bourbon aged less than four years must include an age statement on its label.
Bourbon that meets the above requirements, has been aged for a minimum of two years, and does not have added coloring, flavoring, or other spirits may be Ч but is not required to be Ч called straight bourbon. Bottled-in-bond bourbon is a sub-category of straight bourbon and must be aged at least four years. Bourbon that has been aged for fewer than three years cannot legally be referred to as whiskey or whisky in the EU.
On May 4, , the United States Congress recognized bourbon whiskey as a "distinctive product of the United States" by concurrent resolution. Bourbon may be produced anywhere in the United States where it is legal to distill spirits, but most brands are produced in Kentucky, where bourbon production has a strong historical association. On August 2, , the U. As of , there were 68 whiskey distilleries in Kentucky, this was up percent in the past ten years. Bardstown, Kentucky , is home to the annual Bourbon Festival held each September.
It has been called the "Bourbon Capital of the World" by the Bardstown Tourism Commission  and the Kentucky Bourbon Festival organizers  who have registered the phrase as a trademark. Tennessee is home to other major bourbon makers, although most prefer to call their product " Tennessee whiskey " instead, including giant Jack Daniel's.
Although some Tennessee whiskey makers maintain that a pre-aging filtration through chunks of maple charcoal, known as the Lincoln County Process and legally mandated since , [A] make its flavor distinct from bourbon, U. Bourbon also was and is made in other U. Usually mash from a previous distillation is added to ensure consistency across batches, creating a sour mash. Finally, yeast is added, and the mash is fermented. Most modern bourbons are initially run off using a column still and then redistilled in a "doubler" alternatively known as a "thumper" or "retort" that is basically a pot still.
The resulting clear spirit, called "white dog", is placed in charred new oak containers for aging. In practice, these containers are generally barrels made from American white oak. The spirit gains its color and much of its flavor from the caramelized sugars and vanillins in the charred wood. If a product is labeled merely as bourbon whiskey rather than straight or blended, no specific minimum aging period is prescribed Ч only that the product has been "stored at not more than Changes to the spirit also occur due to evaporation and chemical processes such as oxidation.
Lower-priced bourbons tend to be aged relatively briefly. Even for higher-priced bourbons, "maturity" rather than a particular age duration is often the goal, as over-aging bourbons can negatively affect the flavor of the bourbon making it taste woody, bitter, or unbalanced. After maturing, bourbon is withdrawn from the barrel and is typically filtered and diluted with water.
All " bottled in bond " bourbon is proof. Some higher-proof bottlings are marketed as " barrel proof ", meaning they have not been diluted or have been only lightly diluted after removal from the barrels.
Bourbon whiskey may be sold at less than 80 proof but must be labeled as "diluted bourbon". After processing, barrels remain saturated with up to 10 U.
Some are employed in the manufacture of various barrel-aged products, including amateur and professionally brewed bourbon-barrel-aged beer, barbecue sauce, wine, hot sauce, and others. Since , Jim Beam has employed barrel rinsing on a large scale to extract bourbon from its used barrels, mixing the extract with a 6-year-old Beam bourbon to create a proof product that it sells as "Devil's Cut".
The bottling operation for bourbon is the process of filtering, mixing together straight whiskey from different barrels sometimes from different distilleries , diluting with water, blending with other ingredients if producing blended bourbon , and filling containers to produce the final product that is marketed to consumers.
By itself, the phrase "bottled by" means only that. Only if the bottler operates the distillery that produced the whiskey may "distilled by" be added to the label. Labeling requirements for bourbon and other alcoholic beverages including the requirements for what is allowed to be called bourbon under U. Code of Federal Regulations. A experiment by Louisville craft distiller Jefferson's Bourbon suggests that in the era before whiskey was routinely bottled at the distillery, Kentucky bourbon developed a superior taste because it was shipped in barrels, using water transport wherever practical.
To test this theory, Jefferson's cofounder Trey Zoeller sent two barrels of the company's signature product to New York City via barge, first down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and then along the Intracoastal Waterway. As a control, he brought a batch of the same whiskey that had remained in Louisville during the same period.
According to Popular Mechanics writer Jacqueline Detwiler, who documented the test, the sample that made the waterborne journey "was mature beyond its age, richer, with new flavors of tobacco, vanilla, caramel, and honey. It was some of the best bourbon any of us had ever drunk. Chemical analysis of the two samples revealed significant differences in molecular profiles, with the sample transported by water having a greater diversity of aromatic compounds.
Bourbon is served in a variety of manners, including neat , diluted with water, over ice "on the rocks" , with cola or other beverages in simple mixed drinks, and in cocktails , including the Manhattan , Bourbon Smash , the Old Fashioned , the whiskey sour , and the mint julep.
Bourbon is also used in cooking and was historically used for medicinal purposes. Bourbon can be used in a variety of confections such as a banana bourbon syrup for waffles , as a flavoring for chocolate cake , or in fruit-based desserts like grilled peach sundaes served with salted bourbon- caramel or brown sugar shortcake with warmed bourbon peaches. It is an optional ingredient in several pie recipes traditional to American cuisine including pumpkin pie , where it can be combined with brown sugar and pecans to make a sweet and crunchy topping for the creamy pumpkin pie filling.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of American whiskey, a barrel-aged distilled spirit made primarily from corn. Drink portal Liquor portal. However, on May 13, , the Governor Bill Haslam of Tennessee signed House Bill , requiring the Lincoln County process and the existing requirements for bourbon to be used for products identified as "Tennessee whiskey". As a grandfathering measure, the law exempted one small producer, Benjamin Prichard's.
June 13, February 23, Bourbon, America's native spirits". Dining Chicago. Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved June 30, May 25, Archived from the original PDF on May 25, Retrieved September 30, Retrieved June 6, March 19, Kleber, ed. Edge, volume editor, Volume 7: Foodways, p.
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