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I opened my Google Docs today only to find out that the right margin is completely messed up, wo 2 Recommended Answers Replies Upvotes Can't create new google doc When I try to create a new google doc, the page takes a few second to try loading, then says "Google. Does Google Docs work offline? Yes. This feature is available within a Chrome browser. If you haven't already, give Chrome a try — it's free and easy to install. Can I share Google Docs files externally? Yes. You can change each document's settings to grant anyone .
This document describes the binary wire format for protocol buffer messages. You don't need to understand this to use protocol buffers in your what words does these letters make, but it can be very useful to know how different protocol buffer formats affect the size of your encoded messages.
In an application, you create a Test1 message and set a to You whah serialize the message to an output stream. If you were able to examine the encoded message, you'd see three bytes:. To understand your simple protocol buffer encoding, you first need to understand varints. Varints are a method of serializing integers using one or more bytes. Smaller numbers take a smaller number of bytes. Each byte in a varint, except the last byte, has the most significant bit msb set — this indicates that there are further bytes to come.
The lower 7 bits of each byte are used to store the two's complement representation of the number in groups of 7 bits, least significant group first. How do you figure out that this is ? First you drop the msb from each byte, as this is just there to tell us whether we've reached the dpcs of the number as you can see, it's set in the first byte as there is more than one byte in the varint :. You reverse the two groups of 7 bits because, as you remember, varints store numbers with the least significant group first.
Then you concatenate them to get your final value:. As you know, a protocol buffer message is a series of key-value pairs. The binary version of a message just uses the field's number as the key — the name and declared type for each field can only be determined on the decoding end by referencing the message type's definition i.
When a message is encoded, the keys and values are concatenated into a byte stream. When the message is being decoded, the parser needs to be able to skip fields that it doesn't recognize. This way, new fields can be added to a message without breaking old programs that do not know about them. To this end, the "key" for each pair in a wire-format message is actually two values — the field number from your.
In most language implementations this key is referred to as a tag. Now let's look at our simple example again. You now know that the first number in the stream is always a varint key, and here it's 08, or dropping the msb :. You take the last three bits to get the wire type 0 and then right-shift by three to get the field number 1. So you now know that the field number is 1 and the following value is a varint. Using your varint-decoding knowledge from the previous section, you can see that the next two bytes store the value As you saw in the previous section, all the protocol buffer types associated with wire type 0 are encoded as varints.
However, there is an important difference between the signed int types sint32 and sint64 and the "standard" int types int32 and int64 when it comes to encoding negative numbers. If you use what does google docs do or int64 as the type for a negative number, the resulting varint is always ten bytes long — it is, effectively, treated like a very large dcos integer. If you use one of the signed types, the resulting varint uses ZigZag encoding, which is much more efficient.
ZigZag encoding maps signed integers to unsigned integers so that numbers with a small absolute value for instance, -1 have a small varint encoded value too. It does this in a way that "zig-zags" back dlcs forth through the positive and negative integers, so that -1 is encoded as 1, 1 is encoded as 2, -2 is encoded as 3, and so on, as you can see in the following table:.
So, in other words, the result of the shift is either a number that is all zero bits if n is positive or all one bits if n is negative. When the sint32 or sint64 is parsed, its value is decoded back to the original, signed version. Non-varint numeric types are simple — how to get rid of windows sidebar and fixed64 have wire type 1, which tells the parser to expect a fixed bit lump of data; similarly float and fixed32 have wire type 5, which tells it to expect 32 bits.
In both cases the values are stored in little-endian byte order. A wire type of 2 length-delimited means that the value is a varint encoded length followed by the specified number of bytes of data. The bytes in [brackets] are the UTF8 of "testing". The key wht is 0x It's parsed:. The length varint in the value is 7 and lo and behold, we find seven bytes following it — our string. And wat the encoded version, again with the Dp a field set to These repeated values do not have to appear consecutively; they may be interleaved with other fields.
The order of the elements with respect to each other is preserved when parsing, though the ordering with respect to wyat fields is lost. In step by step instructions on how to make moonshine, repeated fields use packed encodingwhich you can read about below.
For any non-repeated fields in proto3, or optional fields in proto2, the encoded message may or may not have a key-value pair with that field number. Normally, an encoded message would never have more than one instance of a non-repeated xocs. However, parsers are expected to handle the case in which they do. For numeric types and strings, if the same field appears multiple times, the parser soes the last value what is biscuit baking mix sees.
For embedded message fields, the parser merges multiple instances of the same field, as if with the Message::MergeFrom method — that is, all singular scalar fields in the latter instance replace those in the former, singular embedded messages are merged, and repeated fields are concatenated. The effect of these rules is that parsing the concatenation of two encoded messages produces exactly the same result as if you had parsed the two messages separately and what does google docs do the resulting objects.
That is, this:. This property is occasionally useful, as it allows you to merge gokgle messages even if you do not know their types. Version 2. In proto3, repeated fields of scalar numeric types are packed by default. These function like how to make egg conditioner for hair fields, but are encoded differently. A packed repeated gootle containing zero elements does not appear in the encoded message.
Otherwise, all of the elements of the field are packed into a single key-value pair with wire type 2 length-delimited.
Each element is encoded the same way it would be normally, except without a key preceding it. Now let's say you construct a Test4providing the values 3,and for the repeated field d. Then, the encoded form would be:. Only repeated fields of primitive numeric types dovs which use the varint, bit, or bit wire types can be declared "packed".
Note that although there's usually no reason to encode more than one key-value pair for a packed repeated field, encoders must be prepared to accept multiple key-value pairs. In this case, the payloads should be concatenated. Each pair must contain a whole number of elements.
Protocol buffer parsers must be able to parse repeated fields that were compiled as packed as if they were not packed, and vice versa. Field numbers may be used in any order in a.
The order chosen has no effect on how the ogogle are serialized. When a message is serialized, there is no guaranteed order for how its known or unknown fields should be written.
Serialization order is an implementation detail and the details of any particular implementation may change in the future. Therefore, protocol buffer parsers must be able soes parse fields in any order. Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. For details, see what does google docs do Google Developers Site Policies.
Protocol Buffers. Home Guides Reference Support. Overview Developer Guide. Related Guides. If you were able to examine the encoded message, you'd see three bytes: 08 96 01 So far, so small and numeric — but what does it mean?
Read on Base Varints To understand your simple protocol buffer encoding, you first need to understand varints. So, for example, here is the number 1 — it's hoogle single byte, so the msb is not set: And here is — this is a bit more complicated: How do you figure out that this is ?
You what is a loose scrum in rugby called know that the first number in the stream is always a varint key, and here it's 08, or dropping the msb : You take the last three bits to get the wire type 0 and then right-shift by three to get the field number 1.
Non-varint Numbers Non-varint numeric types are simple — double and fixed64 have wire type 1, which tells the parser to expect a fixed bit lump of data; similarly float and fixed32 have wire type 5, which tells it to expect 32 bits.
Strings A wire type of 2 length-delimited means that the value is a varint encoded length followed by the specified number of bytes of data. That is, this: MyMessage message; message. ParseFromString str1 ; message2. ParseFromString str2 ; message. MergeFrom message2 ; This property is occasionally useful, as it allows you to merge two messages even if you do not know their types. Packed Repeated Fields Version 2. Field Order Field numbers may be used in any order in a.
Implications Do not assume the byte output what does frogspawn look like a serialized message is stable.
This is especially true for messages with transitive bytes fields representing other serialized protocol buffer messages. By default, repeated invocations roes serialization methods on the same protocol buffer message instance may not return the same byte output; i. Deterministic serialization only guarantees the same byte output for a particular binary. The byte output may change across different versions of the binary.
The following checks may fail for a protocol buffer message instance foo. SerializeAsString Hash foo. SerializeAsString FingerPrint foo. SerializeAsString Here're a few example scenarios where logically equivalent protocol buffer messages foo and bar may serialize to different byte outputs.
A Simple Message
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This article was written by Travis Boylls. Travis has experience writing technology-related articles, providing software customer service, and in graphic design. He studied graphic design at Pikes Peak Community College. This article has been viewed , times. This wikiHow teaches you how to make a calendar in Google Docs. You can create a calendar manually by using a table, or you can use a Google template.
If you aren't logged into your Google account, you'll be prompted to sign in with your Google email address and password first. Click Blank. It's on the far-left side of the "Start a new document" row of options near the top of the page.
Doing so opens a new Google Doc template. Enter your month's name. This will ensure that the month's name is above the calendar. Click Insert. It's the menu bar at the top of the Google Docs web page. This displays a grid to the right that allows you to highlight and select the size of the table you want to create. Select Insert table.
It's at the top of the Table drop-down menu. Selecting this option prompts a pop-out window with a grid of cubes. Create a seven-by-six table. Move your mouse cursor to select seven cubes at the top of the pop-out window, then move the cursor down at least six spaces. Once you have a seven-by-six grid highlighted in blue, click your mouse to insert the table. Depending on the month, you may need seven rows instead of six e. Enter the names of the days of the week.
In the top row of your calendar, type in the weekday names. For example, you would put "Sunday" in the top-left box, "Monday" in the box immediately to the right, and so on. To save time, after you type the days of the week in the top row, copy the entire row and paste it in each subsequent row.
Type in the day numbers for each box below the day of the week. Resize your calendar. To resize the rows and columns, click and drag the black lines below, and to the left and right of each cell. Make sure each cell is large enough to fit the day of the week, date, and any events you want to include. Resizing the calendar will also make sure that the numbers are in the upper-left corners of their respective cells.
Repeat for the remaining months. Customize your calendar to your liking. Tinker with what you can do to customize your calendar. Some common options include the following: Try using bold text on the days of the week or date. Try using a smaller font to list any events. Try using a large bold font to list the month names. Try changing the colors of individual boxes, columns, or rows by right-clicking the cell you want to change.
Then click Table , then click Table properties , and changing the Cell background color value. Exit the document. You'll be able to open it again from the Docs page, as well as from your Google Drive page.
Method 2 of Click the Add-ons tab. You'll find this option in the row of tabs above the blank document. Clicking it prompts a drop-down menu. Click Get add-ons…. It's near the top of the drop-down menu.
The search bar is in the top-right corner of the Add-Ons window. Select a Google account. Click the account you want to use in the pop-up window. If you're only signed in on one Google account, you may not see this step. This will install Template Gallery. Click Add-ons again. Doing so prompts a drop-down menu. You should now see Template Gallery listed here.
Select Template Gallery. This will cause a pop-out menu to appear. Click Browse templates. It's at the top of the pop-out menu. Click Calendars. You'll find this option on the right side of the Templates window. Select a calendar template. Click a calendar template that you want to use. Doing so opens the template's page. Click Copy to Google Drive. It's on the right side of the template's page.
Clicking this will add the calendar document to your Google Drive. Click Open file. It's in the same place that the Copy to Google Drive button was in. Doing so opens the calendar template. Review your calendar. Your selected template should use the current year to generate the calendar, giving you an accurate month calendar on which you can add information. You can access this calendar at any time by opening it from Google Drive. Kat Nordstrom. You can share your calendar with anyone who has an email address.
However, people who do not have a Gmail account will be unable to edit your document. Not Helpful 2 Helpful
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