Recognizing and Handling Calving Problems
If this does not help, release the calf puller or tension on the chains and push the calf back far enough to relieve the lock up. Then rotate the calf clockwise or counter-clockwise to get a new angle for the hips to pass through the cow’s pelvis. Oct 29, · What does it mean if i can have stone, i can have it in my hand and just talk to someone, i can have it on the table with me or take it everywhere with me and i can change it colour. I have a stone of which my partner has given me that i have sitting on my desk constantly and it has never moved.
All A-Z health topics. View all odes in this section. About this tool Host this tool. Eat this. Don't eat that. Do this. Don't do that.
Pregnant women are bombarded with do's and don'ts. Here is help to keep it all straight. Eating healthy foods is more important now than ever! You need more protein, iron, calcium, and folic acid than you did before pregnancy. You also need more calories. But "eating for two" doesn't mean eating twice as much. Rather, it means that the foods you eat brithing the main source of nutrients for your baby.
Sensible, balanced meals combined with regular physical fitness is still the best recipe for good health during your pregnancy. The amount of weight you should gain during pregnancy depends on your body mass index BMI before you became pregnant.
The Institute of Medicine provides these guidelines:. You should gain weight gradually during your pregnancy, with most of the weight gained in the last trimester.
Generally, doctors suggest women gain weight at the following rate:. Recent research shows that women who gain more than the recommended amount during pregnancy and who fail to lose this weight within six months after giving birth are at much higher risk of being obese nearly 10 years later. Findings from another large study suggest that gaining more bidthing than the recommended amount during pregnancy may raise your child's odds of being overweight in the future.
If you find that how to change carb jets are gaining weight too quickly, try to cut back on foods with added sugars and solid fats. If you are not gaining enough weight, you can eat a little more from each food group.
Your calorie needs will depend on your weight gain goals. Most women need calories a day more during at least the last how to use acnefree terminator 10 months of pregnancy than they do pre-pregnancy.
Keep in mind that not all calories are equal. Your baby needs healthy foods that are packed with nutrients — not "empty calories" such as those found in soft drinks, candies, and desserts.
Although you want to be careful not to eat more what does birthing hips mean you need for a healthy pregnancy, make sure not to restrict your diet during pregnancy either.
If you don't get the calories you need, your baby might not get the right amounts of protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Low-calorie diets can break down a pregnant woman's stored fat. This can cause your body to make substances called ketones. Ketones can be found in the mother's blood and urine and are a sign of starvation. Constant production of ketones can result in a child with mental deficiencies. A pregnant woman needs more of many important vitamins, minerals, and nutrients than she birhting before pregnancy. Making healthy food choices every day will help you give your baby what he or she needs to develop.
Most foods are safe for pregnant women and their babies. But you will need to how to make a unique diaper cake caution or avoid eating certain foods. Follow these guidelines:. Clean, handle, cook, and chill food properly to prevent foodborne illness, including listeria and toxoplasmosis.
Fish and shellfish can be an important part of a healthy diet. They are a great source of protein and heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
What's more, some researchers believe low fish intake may be linked to depression in women during and after pregnancy. Research also suggests that omega-3 fatty acids consumed by pregnant women may aid in babies' brain and eye development. Women who are or may become pregnant and nursing mothers need 12 ounces of fish per bigthing to reap the health benefits.
Unfortunately, some pregnant and nursing women do not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that at high levels can harm the brain of your unborn baby — even before it is conceived. Mercury mainly gets into our bodies by eating large, predatory fish. Yet many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So the risk of mercury exposure depends on the amount and type of what is software life cycle you eat.
Women who are nursing, pregnant, or who may become pregnant can safely eat a variety of cooked seafood, but should steer clear of fish with high levels of mercury. Keep in mind that removing all fish from your diet will rob you of important omega-3 fatty acids.
To reach 12 ounces while limiting exposure to what does birthing hips mean, follow these tips:. In addition to making healthy food choices, ask your doctor about taking a prenatal vitamin and mineral supplement every day to be sure you are getting enough of the nutrients your baby needs.
You also can check the doez on the foods you buy to see how much of a certain nutrient the product contains. Women who are pregnant need more of these nutrients than women who are not pregnant:. Women who are pregnant also need to be sure to get enough vitamin D.
The current recommendation for all adults younger than 71 including birthin and breastfeeding women is international units IU of vitamin Birthkng each day.
Talk to your doctor about how you can be sure to get enough vitamin D and other important vitamins and nutrients. Keep in mind that taking too much of a supplement can be harmful.
For example, very high levels of vitamin A can cause birth defects. For this reason, your daily prenatal vitamin should contain no more than 5, IU International Units of vitamin A. Some supplements contain much more. Only take vitamins and mineral supplements that your doctor recommends.
All of your body's systems need water. When you are pregnant, your body needs even more water to stay hydrated and support the life inside you. Wwhat also what does birthing hips mean prevent constipation, hemorrhoids, excessive swelling, and urinary tract or bladder how to hack linux server. Not getting enough water can lead to premature or early labor.
Your body gets the water it needs through the fluids you drink and the foods you eat. How much gips you need to drink each day depends on many factors, such as your activity level, the weather, and your size. Your body needs more fluids when it is hot and when you are physically active.
It also needs more water if you have a fever or if you are vomiting or have diarrhea. The Institute of Medicine recommends that pregnant women drink about 10 cups of fluids daily. Water, juices, coffee, tea, and soft drinks all what is the best freeview recorder toward your fluid needs.
But keep in mind that some beverages are high in sugar and "empty" calories. A good way to tell if your fluid intake is okay is if your urine is pale yellow or colorless and you rarely feel thirsty.
Thirst is a sign that your body is on its way to dehydration. Don't wait until you feel thirsty to drink. There is no known safe amount of alcohol a woman can drink while pregnant. When you are pregnant and you drink beer, wine, hard liquor, or other alcoholic beverages, alcohol gets into your blood. The alcohol in your blood gets into your baby's body through the umbilical cord. Alcohol can slow down what does self obsessed mean baby's growth, affect the baby's brain, and cause birth defects.
Find out more about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy in our section on substance abuse. Moderate amounts of caffeine appear to be safe during pregnancy. Moderate means less than mg of caffeine per day, which is the amount in about 12 ounces of coffee. Most caffeinated teas and soft drinks have much less caffeine. Some studies have shown a link between higher amounts of caffeine and miscarriage and preterm whaf. But there is no solid proof that caffeine causes these problems.
The effects of too much caffeine are unclear. Whst your doctor whether drinking a limited amount of caffeine is okay for you. Many women have strong desires for specific foods during pregnancy.
The desire for "pickles and ice cream" and other birhhing might be caused by changes in nutritional needs during pregnancy. The fetus needs nourishment. And a woman's body absorbs and processes nutrients differently while pregnant. These changes help ensure normal development of the baby and fill birthkng demands of breastfeeding once the baby is born.
Some women crave nonfood items such as clay, ice, laundry starch, or cornstarch. A desire to eat nonfood items is called pica. Talk to your doctor if you have these urges. Fitness goes hand in hand with eating right to maintain your physical health and well-being during pregnancy. Pregnant or not, physical fitness helps keep the heart, bones, and mind healthy.
Mar 14, · The amount of weight you should gain during pregnancy depends on your body mass index (BMI) before you became pregnant. The Institute of Medicine provides these guidelines: If you were at a normal weight before pregnancy, you should gain about 25 to 30 pounds. Apr 17, · Remember that not everyone has the same story of labor. Just because your friend had an unfortunate delivery does not mean you will have one. 3. Acquire knowledge about birthing: Knowledge is power. Acquire as much knowledge as possible about labor and the delivery process. Get all your doubts about pregnancy and childbirth cleared by your doctor. Mean kids aren't just a middle-school problem. The trouble has trickled to the youngest grades. Rocking, bouncing, and rotating your hips on a birthing ball also opens the pelvis, and it may.
Calving difficulty dystocia is a concern of every cattleman because it is a major cause of calf deaths and is second only to rebreeding failures in reducing calf crop percentages. Cows that have difficulty during calving have significantly lower fertility at rebreeding. Prevention through good heifer management and proper bull selection is the best treatment for calving difficulties. Even with the best management, though, a certain percentage of young heifers will experience difficulty to some degree, and even older cows occasionally have difficulty.
Watching a good heifer or cow go through the agonies of a problem birth is not an uncommon experience for anyone in the cattle business. Probably the most frustrating aspect is trying to decide when and how to assist and whether or not professional attention is needed. Many cattlemen attempt to correct problems that they have neither the instruments nor the knowledge to handle, while others refuse to intervene in even the simplest dystocia problems.
Neither approach is good. The rancher and veterinarian should cooperate to deal with problems. All cattlemen should be able to recognize early signs of dystocia and determine when or if professional help is needed. The following guidelines can help cattlemen reduce calf losses when dystocia problems occur. To reduce calving losses, cattlemen must understand the progressive stages of birth and the time interval of each stage.
This knowledge can be gained by frequently observing the birth process. Familiarity with each stage of birth as well as the skeletal structure of the cow Figs. Stage 1 or prepatory stage starts when the uterus begins contracting and the cervix dilates, ending with the movement of fetal parts into the birth canal.
Generally, few signs of labor are evident at this time, but the positioning of the calf causes discomfort to the cow. Early labor symptoms vary greatly in cows during this stage. Many older cows that have had several calves may show almost no signs of labor, and only close observation and attention may give any indications of approaching birth. Subtle signs of this stage in older cows might include the animal lying in a slightly abnormal position or the fact that the cow is a little more alert than other cows.
Conversely, heifers may be very restless and show signs of abdominal pain up to 24 hours before cervical dilation is detectable. Signs of approaching birth may include standing with the tail raised and back arched, tail twitching and general restlessness and discomfort which may include kicking at the stomach area. In a normal labor, this period lasts from 2 to 6 hours, but may be only 30 minutes or as long as 24 hours. Stage 1 is normally longer in heifers.
Uterine contractions during this stage recur at about minute intervals and push the water-filled allantochorion Fig. As the cervix dilates and uterus contracts, the allantochorion water bag passes through the cervix and often ruptures. In about half of normal births the allantochorion membrane passes through the vagina and reaches the vulva intact. It may protrude as a water bag filled with dark amber fluid.
Occasionally the membrane breaks before it becomes visible. Then it is observed simply as a sudden and large expulsion of straw-colored fluid rushing from the vagina.
This is followed by the amnion or water sac, which is the membrane immediately surrounding the calf. The amnion is a white, clear membrane, in comparison with the allantochorion which is a darker color.
Appearance of the amnion or feet beginning to protrude through the vulva marks the beginning of the delivery stage.
Ordinarily, birth occurs within 30 minutes to 4 hours after the amnion or feet are first visible. Although the time limits specified for stage 2 are accepted norms, remember that if a cow is moved during early labor or in the early stages of active labor she may actually delay calving. Excitement and nervousness in cows may temporarily weaken uterine contractions. Thus, when observing cows during stage 2, consider any movement or undue excitement of the cows when determining the length of delivery.
Stage 2 or delivery stage is the time of expulsion and actual delivery of the calf. In normal deliveries, this stage lasts from 30 minutes to 4 hours, but may be longer in young heifers. Early symptoms are recognized easily. When the calf enters the cervix, abdominal straining, commonly called the abdominal press, occurs. At this time the behavior of the cow changes markedly from being alert to becoming almost oblivious to her surroundings and concentrating on the uterine contractions.
The cow may be lying down or standing, but definite and prolonged periods of straining are demonstrated. It is important not to hurry the cow at this time, but be prepared to help. The extra time allows the vulva to dilate further and prevents tearing of the tissues.
Pressure of the fetal parts further stimulates contractions that push the calf out. In the mare and sow, there are few points of placental attachment; these are broken soon after fetal expulsion begins.
Thus, birth must be rapid or the newborn will suffocate. In the cow there are numerous points of attachment placentomes, commonly called buttons , and since the membranes remain attached, there is a continuous supply of oxygen from the cow even if labor is prolonged.
A calf can survive in the uterus for 8 to 10 hours if delivery does not progress beyond the early phases of stage 2. However, delivery should be completed within 2 hours after the water sac or feet first appear. Stage 3 or membrane expulsion stage is the final expulsion of the fetal membranes after the calf is born.
The fetal membranes or placenta usually are expelled without complication within 30 minutes to 8 hours following delivery. If membranes are retained more than 12 hours, they are considered pathological and may require attention. If problems arise, they generally show up after the water sac appears. Should labor go on for 2 to 3 hours with no apparent progress, or if the water sac appears and delivery is not complete within 2 hours, a pelvic examination is in order to determine the problem.
Although it is difficult to actually determine if a cow will calve within the next 12 hours without performing a pelvic examination, there is one external indication that may be used with some reliability to predict the actual time of birth. The most useful external evidence is the texture of the posterior or back border of the sacro-sciatic ligament.
This ligament is located on either side of and below the tailhead where it joins the pelvic bone. When the edge of this ligament becomes very relaxed one can reasonably predict that birth will begin within approximately 12 hours.
Several studies have demonstrated that the softening of this ligament, which often coincides with some elevation in the tailhead, occurs simultaneously with the relaxation and dilation enlargement of the cervix.
Assuming labor has continued for 2 to 3 hours with no progress, make all decisions based on an actual pelvic examination. Thus, it is imperative that cows making little progress be examined as early as possible to determine the problem. This allows time for repositioning the calf.
A careful examination of the cow is possibly the most critical step in assisted deliveries. Before the examination remember that sanitation is of utmost importance to prevent the introduction of infectious organisms into the reproductive tract and that the arm should be well lubricated to facilitate the examination and minimize the trauma to delicate reproductive tissues.
The first step in examining the cow is to examine the cervix for dilation. If the cervix will admit only two to three fingers, the case is probably one of nondilation of the cervix or possibly uterine torsion.
At this point one must have some idea of how long the cow has been in active labor. If the cervix has not dilated, one may be interfering too soon; if labor has been going on for 2 to 3 hours with no progress, professional help may be needed.
Dilation of the cervix begins on the internal extremity of the cervix and continues toward the external extreme over a period of 6 to 12 hours. When the cervix is dilated completely it is approximately 6 to 7 inches wide.
At this time the cervix and the vagina become a continuous canal and in most instances are tightly engaged by the stretched fetal membranes. The next step in examining the cow is to check for life signs in the unborn calf, because this determines the urgency and type of assistance needed. With posterior or breech presentations, inserting the finger into the anus causes constriction of the anal sphincter. Absence of the vital signs, sloughing of the hair or foul odors may indicate the calf is dead.
As the next step in the examination, determine the presentation, position and posture of the calf. Presentation describes the relative direction of delivery. The calf may be presented frontwards, backwards or crosswise to the pelvic opening.
Position describes how the calf is lying. The calf may be upside down, right side up, or have its back to either side of the pelvic canal of the cow. Posture indicates the location of the legs, head and neck. If the calf is presented frontwards, one or both forelegs may be turned back or the head may be down and the feet in correct position.
A fetus in a backwards presentation may have one or both hindlegs flexed at the hock or hips. The normal presentation of the calf Fig. Although a calf can be pulled in a backwards presentation Fig.
The normal position of the calf is back side up. Never pull a calf in any other position because the chances of killing both the cow and calf are great. The correct posture of the fetus is with both front legs outstretched in the birth canal and with the head and neck extended along the legs. Correct any deviation from this posture before the calf is extracted Figs.
About 95 percent of all births occur with normal presentation, position and posture. Determining the relative size of the calf and birth canal is the next step in examination. This is a critical judgment and requires some experience. Forcing a large calf through a small pelvic opening almost invariably results in death of the calf as well as injury, paralysis or even death of the cow.
If it is fairly certain the cow will have serious calving difficulties, call a veterinarian. Veterinarians use a variety of instruments and drugs in handling severe calving problems, but certain basic supplies are needed by all cattlemen.
Having the proper equipment may mean the difference between saving or losing a problem calf. Use a maternity stall when available. This is an enclosed area approximately 4 x 8 feet, preferably with side and rear exits. It should be well bedded and sanitized thoroughly between calvings.
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