How to Write a Defense Closing Argument for Mock Trial Good afternoon, my name is , and again I am the defense lawyer in this case. In the case that the prosecutor has presented to you today there is insufficient proof to convict. We would ask for a verdict of not guilty. [Echo or refer to the theme that you referenced in your opening. Oct 25, · Opening and closing arguments are critical to any high school Mock Trial case and serve several important functions. In this blog post, we’ll discuss everything you need to know to write a stellar opening and closing argument for Mock Trial.
See how your profile ranks among thousands of other students using CollegeVine. Are you applying to schools and want to know your admissions chances? Calculate your chances right now and understand your odds before applying.
It is often longer and more detail-oriented in its argumentation than the opening statement. It also requires a review and summarization of the evidence presented during the case and a legal argument regarding the evidence and what it proves or disproves. Furthermore, a how to remove halogen bulb from fixture argument often includes a rebuttal section, so attorneys must be ready to respond and challenge opposing arguments in a dynamic setting.
Although these two parts of a case—the opening argument and the closing argument—may seem similar and certainly require the same foundational skills, they are different enough in purpose to require specific and targeted preparation. As mentioned earlier, a core set of skills is required for nearly all parts of Mock Trial competition, including opening and closing statements.
Mastering certain skills related to confidence in public speaking, clear legal thought and analysis, and quick critical thinking help you exude a polished and professional demeanor while elevating your argument to a higher level. Strong public speaking ability is perhaps the most fundamental trait to a successful mock trial attorney and is especially important for the opening and closing arguments. Mastering these factors is often harder than how to make a model horse may seem, simply because different arguments will require the attorney to set different atmospheres in the courtroom.
For example, if an attorney wishes to draw attention to the plight of a victim and evoke sympathy, a strong, harsh and forceful presentation may not be the most effective. On the other hand, if the attorney wishes to emphasize the callousness or malice of a defendant in the same case, the presentation previously described would be much better suited.
The key to using how to write an opening argument for a mock trial finer points of public speaking is to understand the effect that these factors will have on the audience. When you realize the huge difference that simple changes in volume or pace can make to the overall nature of the argument, you can create an argument perfectly suited to the facts and case at hand. Another prerequisite to having a polished and successful opening or closing argument is a thorough understanding of the legal concepts and statutes underlying a case.
This understanding is crucial for the attorney presenting these arguments because often in a case, the opening or closing arguments are the pregnancy calculator how many weeks left times when legal theory can be presented directly and openly. Questioning witnesses about events and establishing a story can provide the elements necessary to prove guilt or innocence, but does not afford the opportunity to present legal reasoning.
Important parts of a case such as the burden of proof, the elements of the crime, and the requirements to find guilt or innocence can only be brought up during opening or closing arguments. A clear and accurate explanation of these legalistic parts of the case ensures two things.
First, such a presentation portrays the attorney as knowledgeable and competent to a judge. Secondly, a complete and accurate presentation of the legal elements of a case presents the argument of the attorney in how to email stephenie meyer structured, easily digestible way.
When a judge hears which elements that will be proved, and understands how the other side must respond to win the case, they will be able to follow the testimony of witnesses much more closely and understand the significance of facts presented. It is important to remember that a case is not ultimately meant to tell a story but to prove guilty or not guilty in terms of the law.
Finally, one feature common to all outstanding opening and closing arguments is that they are memorized. Memorization automatically displays an elevated level of confidence and preparation to the judge and scoring attorneys. Just seeing an attorney enter the well without any aids and begin an argument is powerful. When an attorney displays confidence in the manner which they speak, this confidence is directly translated to the case they present. Secondly, memorization helps the attorney better focus and perfect the finer points of public speaking.
Without having to worry about looking what are the five basic needs of a human being their next line, an attorney can focus more of their attention on the quality of their speaking. Additionally, people in general tend to speed up and talk too fast when looking at or reading from a paper. Thus, one of the virtues of memorization is that an attorney automatically speaks more slowly and clearly.
Finally, without an aid or paper, an attorney is not tied to the podium and is not seen as clumsy because they are holding something. The more an attorney moves about a courtroom, the greater control they have over it. If an attorney can move from the counsel table, walk over to the exhibits, and end in front of the judge, they display an invaluable sense of comfort and poise. There are four what are some common muscle diseases elements to a complete opening argument.
Although the exact structure and order of these elements within the overall argument will vary, it is important to include significant detail about each in order to lay the proper groundwork for the case an attorney intends to present. The elements include:. The amount of storytelling involved will vary depending on many factors, including whether the argument is for the prosecution or the defense team. Because the prosecution team presents their opening statement first, and because they have the burden of proof the requirement to prove the defendant guiltytheir opening will include much more storytelling.
Often, a prosecution opening statement can be structured entirely around the storyline of the case. Such an intensive retelling is not necessary for the defense, as they must simply cast a reasonable doubt on the allegations made. Thus, a defense opening will often include a story of much more limited scope and one how to write an opening argument for a mock trial specifically towards the prosecutorial weaknesses of the case.
A description of what the prosecution or defense intends to prove or show. For the prosecution, this should be a statement of the charges, and the corresponding list of actions the defendant must have taken to be found guilty. This statement should be accompanied by a short description of what exactly the defendant did. For the defense, a focus should be placed on the weakest legal elements that the prosecution must prove.
Mock trial cases will never favor one side over how to study for the cset other, so there will always be the opportunity to poke holes in the argument of the other side. One thing the defense should take care to avoid is appearing to argue their case with the opening statement. The opening statement is not the how to get big loose curls overnight to draw legal conclusions, as no evidence has been presented yet.
A short explanation of the evidence that will be presented. For the prosecution, this can include actual physical evidence, such as a diagram or letter. These should be referenced and used during opening statements by the prosecution. Additionally, both the prosecution and defense should be sure to emphasize particularly important facts to their side during the opening.
If the defense plans to have a witness testify who will provide an alibi for the defendant, this should be brought up in the opening. A short description of what each of the witnesses will testify. This provides a roadmap for the judge and scoring attorneys and helps them know what to expect from each witness. This allows for a streamlined introduction to the facts, as well as the structure of the case, and minimizes confusion created by varying orders.
By including these four elements into an opening argument, an attorney will be sure to cover all the bases necessary for a solid case foundation and will fill in any gaps of knowledge the judge may have, allowing them to focus entirely on the direct examination of witnesses that follows.
There are certain very common mistakes which should be avoided at all costs during opening statements. One of the most often encountered occurs when one side states what evidence the opposing side will show. Although both teams have a pretty good idea of what the other will attempt to prove and what evidence or witnesses they will use because of the structure of Mock Trial, this knowledge should not be used in opening statements.
The second common mistake to avoid is drawing legal conclusions. Although it is fine to say what their side intends to do, an attorney should not present their opening statement as a conclusive legal argument. There are also four important elements present in a good closing argument. These elements are similar to those listed in the opening statement but differ in two significant ways. First and most importantly, closing occurs after a case has been presented, meaning that all evidence and testimony has been heard.
This allows an attorney to speak much more concretely about what evidence favors their case. The components of a closing argument are as follows:. The rebuttal. The rebuttal is usually around one minute of time where an attorney can counter directly what the other side has claimed. It often helps if an attorney takes notes on possible ideas for rebuttal throughout the trial and starts and ends their rebuttal with rehearsed and memorized statements.
This gives the rebuttal a natural and fluid presentation while also making it dynamic and unique to every trial. Just as with opening, there are common mistakes to avoid when conducting the closing argument. The same goes for misquoting witnesses. At best the judge will see it as a careless mistake. At worst, it can even be seen as a malicious attempt to deceive the court.
Another extremely common mistake is to reference evidence that had actually been excluded via objection. For example, if an attorney intended on having a particular piece of testimony included in the case, but this testimony was excluded because of an objection, it is stricken from the record and cannot be used as evidence. If an attorney quotes something that was actually excluded, it is possible for the opposing attorney to call them out during rebuttal or bring up the issue before scoring is submitted.
The more one competes and observes others in Mock Trial, the more they will internalize what it means to have a great argument.
The most important tip for writing a good opening or closing is to first stick to the fundamentals of the case. An attorney must first cover the basics of the law and case. Making sure these elements are solid both factually and legally, will create a foundation upon which witnesses and examining attorneys will be able to build on. Once the content itself has been finalized, mastering delivery and presence will result in an extremely effective opening or closing argument.
Want access to expert college guidance — for free? When you create your free CollegeVine account, you will what is the leading cause of traumatic brain injury out your real admissions chances, build a best-fit school list, learn how to improve your profile, and get your questions answered by experts and peers—all for free.
Sign up for your CollegeVine account today to get a boost on your college journey. Do you know how to improve your profile for college applications? Want more college admissions tips? We'll send you information to help you throughout the college admissions process. Loved the article? Share it! Short bio. Anamaria is an Economics major at Columbia University who's passionate about sharing her knowledge of admissions with students facing the applications process.
When she's not writing for the CollegeVine blog, she's studying Russian literature and testing the limits of how much coffee one single person can consume in a day. Other articles by Anamaria. March 4, 10 min read Extracurricular Activities. Related CollegeVine Blog Posts.
Mock Trial Opening Statements for The Prosecutor.
If you are the prosecution or plaintiff you must reserve time for rebuttal before you start your closing argument. Check your Mock Trial rules. An Introduction: Attorney identifies themselves (or not). Some attorneys begin with something like:“Your Honor, members of the jury, my name is (full name), representing the prosecution/defendant in this case.”. Dec 25, · In a mock trial, typically the prosecutor has 3 or 4 witnesses, and the time spent on an opening will be 5 minutes or less. The above outline is a real basic opening statement. To some it is a little bland, or formulaic, but in my job as a criminal defense lawyer, I . Jul 25, · How to Make an Opening Statement for a Mock Trial When it comes to mock trials or debates in class, even good arguments can fall flat without a strong closing statement. Closing statements wrap up a trial's or debate's argument by making connections between the evidence and the claim or the verdict the lawyer wants the jury to reach.
December 25, by mocktrialblahblahblah. Volunteering to present the opening statement for your mock trial team poses a challenge. It may mean that you are the first to speak in the entire competition. First the prosecutor gives an opening, then the defense, then the prosecutor calls her witnesses, the defense calls witnesses, the prosecutor does the closing argument, the defense closes, then the prosecutor gets to speak one more time in rebuttal.
So if you volunteer to present the opening statement you will be speaking first. Until now, the jury will not have heard anything about your case. So the opening statement is an opportunity to outline the facts as you anticipate they will be presented. The opening statement is not really an opportunity to argue your case, but it is an opportunity for you to begin to convince the jury about the strength of your case, or the strength of your defense.
Here is an outline of a real traditional prosecution opening statement:. So that is basically how a prosecutor does an opening. In a mock trial, typically the prosecutor has 3 or 4 witnesses, and the time spent on an opening will be 5 minutes or less. The above outline is a real basic opening statement. To some it is a little bland, or formulaic, but in my job as a criminal defense lawyer, I do often see prosecutors deliver such openings.
It basically gets the job done. And in a mock trial, that is often what a student lawyer is trying to do. Now, students in a mock trial competition often want to know how to score the most points in an opening statement.
Rather I would write out an outline of what you want to say, and then rehearse it 20 times. Usually this is hard for students to do; there is a tendency to try to memorize it, or to just read a pre-written statement. However, you will lose points if you read an opening. You just never see lawyers even inexperienced one do that in court. Also, it seems like judges will score you on making good eye contact with the jurors, and delivering the opening with some level of feeling or emotion.
The closing is more an opportunity for persuasion, but your opening should contain a little element of drama. Also, you will be judged on covering all the strongest points of your case.
You could lose points by including facts that are later not covered. The best way to get good is to practice your opening statement in front of your classmates. See also our new post on Tips for a Prosecution Opening. Posted in Uncategorized 32 Comments. Thank you for the examples of opening statements in mock trials. Maybe some ideas for how to overcome the butterflies in your stomach would be helpful.
When I got up to speak, I had prepared a lot and read a lot of mock trial opening statement examples, but all my preparation kinda went out the window once I had to stand up and say it all in front of all my classmates! If you want to know how to write an opening statement for a mock trial, you can look at examples, but remember you will need to tailor your opening for the specific facts of your case.
The best way to avoid getting nervous is to practice your opening in front of the mirror, and then practice it front of a friend, and then practice it in front of three friends, and then in front of the class a time or two.
This takes time but there is simply no other way to get prepared. Looking at a mock trial opening statement example can help you know how to start off, and maybe end but everything that goes in the middle is up to you.
Remember to listen to your teammates as to what important fact they feel need to be included. You can develop your own person style through looking at the works of others; there many types of an example of opening statement for mock trial, and you need to pick what feels natural for you.
Thanks guys for coming by. Silvia, I would definitely look on YouTube for example of mock trial opening statements. This is my first year in mock trial. I am a lawyer and i have to do the opening statement.
I could really use some help and i wish i could see the video. Thanks Tiana. I will try to replace that link with a new video. Thanks for letting me know. Please hurry! I have the same problem as Tiana and I really could use some help.
Thank you very much. This helped me a lot. As an aspiring prosecutor these videos and posts have really helped me a lot! They are super informative! Appreciate it! Thanks so much i am just starting middle school and im in the magnet classes! Comments RSS. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.
Zoom Profile ………. Home About. Mock trial blog Mock trial info for high school kids. Feeds: Posts Comments. This is my opportunity to outline the evidence as I anticipate it will be presented.
I will call three witnesses. The first witness will be so and so, and he will testify as to such and such. The second witness will be so and so, and he will testify as to such and such. The third witness will be so and so, and he will testify as to such and such. At the conclusion of the case, we will ask you to convict the defendant of the crime as charged, thank you.
Here is a sample opening statement from a fictional trial of Lee Harvey Oswald. Share this:. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. Name required. Search Search for:. Blog at WordPress.
<- How to make a plush keychain - How to keep a phone conversation interesting->