Flagyl: 7 things you should know
Apr 13, · What is Flagyl? Flagyl (metronidazole) is an antibiotic that fights bacteria. Flagyl is used to treat bacterial infections of the vagina, stomach, liver, skin, joints, brain, and respiratory tract. Flagyl will not treat a vaginal yeast infection. Oct 17, · Flagyl MG Tablet is an antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent, which is used in treating the various infections of the gastrointestinal tract, genital areas, joints, skin, and other areas of the body. It is also used for the prophylaxis of sexually transmitted diseases. It is not recommended to take alcohol with this medicine.
Physicians prescribe metronidazole mg tablets to treat and prevent certain kinds of infections, according to the National Health Service. These include mouth, bone, intestine and genital tract infections.
Metronidazole also prevents infections after surgery. Metronidazole is an antimicrobial agent that treats various types of infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and microorganisms known as protozoa, states the Patient. These organisms usually cause infections in the gums, abdomen and pelvic cavity. They do not require oxygen to grow and multiply. Another use of metronidazole is preventing infection before gynecological surgery and surgery on the intestines.
Furthermore, it eliminates Helicobacter pylori, which is a what do giblets look like in a turkey infection associated with stomach ulcers.
The Patient. It is also available as a skin gel and cream. Some side effects of the medicine include lack of appetite, furred tongue, sore mouth, changes in the way things taste and a feeling of being sick. It is important to avoid drinking alcohol while taking this medication and for 48 hours after completing the course of treatment as alcohol tends to make a person very sick and also causes unpleasant effects, such as headaches, hot flushes and palpitations.
More From Reference. What Is Aristocracy? What Do Stars Symbolize?
Flagyl - Clinical Pharmacology
Feb 12, · Flagyl is indicated in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections in which anaerobic bacteria have been identified or are suspected to be the cause. Flagyl is active against a wide range of pathogenic micro-organisms notably species of Bacteroides, Fusobacteria, Clostridia, Eubacteria, anaerobic cocci and Gardnerella vaginalis. Jul 18, · Metronidazole failed to produce any adverse effects on fertility or testicular function in male rats at doses up at mg/kg/day (similar to the maximum recommended clinical dose, based on body surface area comparisons) for 28 days. Mar 22, · Flagyl is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of bacterial infections of the vagina, stomach, liver, skin, joints, brain and respiratory tract. Flagyl may be used alone or with other medications. Flagyl is a nitroimidazoles, CYP3A4 Inhibitor, moderate. What are the possible side effects of Flagyl?
Generic Name: metronidazole Dosage Form: tablet, film coated. Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on March 1, Unnecessary use of the drug should be avoided.
Flagyl metronidazole tablets, mg or mg is an oral formulation of the synthetic nitroimidazole antimicrobial, 2-methylnitro-1H-imidazoleethanol, which has the following structural formula:. Flagyl metronidazole tablets contain mg or mg of metronidazole. Disposition of metronidazole in the body is similar for both oral and intravenous dosage forms. Following oral administration, metronidazole is well absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations occurring between one and two hours after administration.
Plasma concentrations of metronidazole are proportional to the administered dose. Studies reveal no significant bioavailability differences between males and females; however, because of weight differences, the resulting plasma levels in males are generally lower. Metronidazole is the major component appearing in the plasma, with lesser quantities of metabolites also being present. Metronidazole appears in cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and breast milk in concentrations similar to those found in plasma.
Bactericidal concentrations of metronidazole have also been detected in pus from hepatic abscesses. Both the parent compound and the hydroxyl metabolite possess in vitro antimicrobial activity. The average elimination half-life of metronidazole in healthy subjects is eight hours.
Decreased renal function does not alter the single-dose pharmacokinetics of metronidazole. Following a single intravenous infusion or oral dose of metronidazole mg, the clearance of metronidazole was investigated in ESRD subjects undergoing hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis CAPD. A peritoneal dialysis session lasting for 7. There were no significant changes in the AUC 24 of hydroxyl-metronidazole in these hepatically impaired patients.
No dosage adjustment is needed for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. In one study, newborn infants appeared to demonstrate diminished capacity to eliminate metronidazole.
The elimination half-life, measured during the first 3 days of life, was inversely related to gestational age. In infants whose gestational ages were between 28 and 40 weeks, the corresponding elimination half-lives ranged from to Metronidazole, a nitroimidazole, exerts antibacterial effects in an anaerobic environment against most obligate anaerobes.
Once metronidazole enters the organism by passive diffusion and activated in the cytoplasm of susceptible anaerobic bacteria, it is reduced; this process includes intracellular electron transport proteins such as ferredoxin, transfer of an electron to the nitro group of the metronidazole, and formation of a short-lived nitroso free radical.
Because of this alteration of the metronidazole molecule, a concentration gradient is created and maintained which promotes the drug's intracellular transport. The precise mechanism of action of metronidazole is unclear. Metronidazole does not possess any clinically relevant activity against facultative anaerobes or obligate aerobes. The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown:.
Flagyl is indicated for the treatment of T. Flagyl is indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic T. Since there is evidence that presence of the trichomonad can interfere with accurate assessment of abnormal cytological smears, additional smears should be performed after eradication of the parasite. Therefore, asymptomatic sexual partners of treated patients should be treated simultaneously if the organism has been found to be present, in order to prevent reinfection of the partner.
The decision as to whether to treat an asymptomatic male partner who has a negative culture or one for whom no culture has been attempted is an individual one. In making this decision, it should be noted that there is evidence that a woman may become reinfected if her sexual partner is not treated. Also, since there can be considerable difficulty in isolating the organism from the asymptomatic male carrier, negative smears and cultures cannot be relied upon in this regard.
In any event, the sexual partner should be treated with Flagyl in cases of reinfection. Flagyl is indicated in the treatment of acute intestinal amebiasis amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess.
In amebic liver abscess, Flagyl therapy does not obviate the need for aspiration or drainage of pus. Flagyl is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Indicated surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with Flagyl therapy.
In a mixed aerobic and anaerobic infection, antimicrobials appropriate for the treatment of the aerobic infection should be used in addition to Flagyl. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Flagyl and other antibacterial drugs, Flagyl should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.
When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy.
In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Flagyl Tablets is contraindicated in patients with a prior history of hypersensitivity to metronidazole or other nitroimidazole derivatives.
Use of oral metronidazole is associated with psychotic reactions in alcoholic patients who were using disulfiram concurrently. Use of oral metronidazole is associated with a disulfiram-like reaction to alcohol, including abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing.
Cases of encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy including optic neuropathy have been reported with metronidazole. Encephalopathy has been reported in association with cerebellar toxicity characterized by ataxia, dizziness, and dysarthria. CNS symptoms are generally reversible within days to weeks upon discontinuation of metronidazole. Peripheral neuropathy, mainly of sensory type has been reported and is characterized by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity.
Cases of aseptic meningitis have been reported with metronidazole. Symptoms can occur within hours of dose administration and generally resolve after metronidazole therapy is discontinued.
In this population, metronidazole should therefore be used after careful benefit-risk assessment and only if no alternative treatment is available. Obtain liver function tests prior to the start of therapy, within the first 2—3 days after initiation of therapy, frequently during therapy and after end of treatment.
Discontinue metronidazole if elevation of liver function tests occurs, and monitor liver function tests until the baseline values are reached. Advise patients with Cockayne syndrome to stop taking metronidazole immediately if they experience any symptoms of potential liver injury, such as abdominal pain, nausea, change in stool color or jaundice, and to contact their healthcare provider.
Patients with hepatic impairment metabolize metronidazole slowly, with resultant accumulation of metronidazole in the plasma. For patients with severe hepatic impairment Child-Pugh C , a reduced dose of Flagyl is recommended. Patients with end-stage renal disease may excrete metronidazole and metabolites slowly in the urine, resulting in significant accumulation of metronidazole metabolites.
Known or previously unrecognized candidiasis may present more prominent symptoms during therapy with Flagyl and requires treatment with a candidacidal agent. Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole and should be used with caution in patients with evidence of or history of blood dyscrasia.
A mild leukopenia has been observed during its administration; however, no persistent hematologic abnormalities attributable to metronidazole have been observed in clinical studies. Total and differential leukocyte counts are recommended before and after therapy. Prescribing Flagyl in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial or parasitic infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites.
Patients should be counseled that Flagyl should only be used to treat bacterial and parasitic infections. Flagyl does not treat viral infections e. When Flagyl is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed.
Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may 1 decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and 2 increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Flagyl in the future. Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients who are using metronidazole and disulfiram concurrently. Metronidazole has been reported to potentiate the anticoagulant effect of warfarin and other oral coumarin anticoagulants, resulting in a prolongation of prothrombin time.
When Flagyl is prescribed for patients on this type of anticoagulant therapy, prothrombin time and INR should be carefully monitored. In patients stabilized on relatively high doses of lithium, short-term metronidazole therapy has been associated with elevation of serum lithium and, in a few cases, signs of lithium toxicity. Serum lithium and serum creatinine levels should be obtained several days after beginning metronidazole to detect any increase that may precede clinical symptoms of lithium intoxication.
Metronidazole has been reported to increase plasma concentrations of busulfan, which can result in an increased risk for serious busulfan toxicity. Metronidazole should not be administered concomitantly with busulfan unless the benefit outweighs the risk.
If no therapeutic alternatives to metronidazole are available, and concomitant administration with busulfan is medically needed, frequent monitoring of busulfan plasma concentration should be performed and the busulfan dose should be adjusted accordingly. The simultaneous administration of drugs that decrease microsomal liver enzyme activity, such as cimetidine, may prolong the half-life and decrease plasma clearance of metronidazole. The simultaneous administration of drugs that induce microsomal liver enzymes, such as phenytoin or phenobarbital, may accelerate the elimination of metronidazole, resulting in reduced plasma levels; impaired clearance of phenytoin has also been reported.
QT prolongation has been reported, particularly when metronidazole was administered with drugs with the potential for prolonging the QT interval. Values of zero may be observed. Interference is due to the similarity in absorbance peaks of NADH nm and metronidazole nm at pH 7.
Tumors affecting the liver, lungs, mammary, and lymphatic tissues have been detected in several studies of metronidazole in rats and mice, but not hamsters. Pulmonary tumors have been observed in all six reported studies in the mouse, including one study in which the animals were dosed on an intermittent schedule administration during every fourth week only.
Malignant lymphomas and pulmonary neoplasms were also increased with lifetime feeding of the drug to mice. Mammary and hepatic tumors were increased among female rats administered oral metronidazole compared to concurrent controls.
Two lifetime tumorigenicity studies in hamsters have been performed and reported to be negative. Metronidazole has shown mutagenic activity in in vitro assay systems including the Ames test. Studies in mammals in vivo have failed to demonstrate a potential for genetic damage. However, rats treated at the same dose for 6 weeks or longer were infertile and showed severe degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium in the testes as well as marked decreases in testicular spermatid counts and epididymal sperm counts.
Fertility was restored in most rats after an eight week, drug-free recovery period. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of Flagyl in pregnant women. There are published data from case-control studies, cohort studies, and 2 meta-analyses that include more than pregnant women who used metronidazole during pregnancy.
Many studies included first trimester exposures. One study showed an increased risk of cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, in infants exposed to metronidazole in-utero; however, these findings were not confirmed. In addition, more than ten randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials enrolled more than pregnant women to assess the use of antibiotic treatment including metronidazole for bacterial vaginosis on the incidence of preterm delivery.
Most studies did not show an increased risk for congenital anomalies or other adverse fetal outcomes following metronidazole exposure during pregnancy. Three studies conducted to assess the risk of infant cancer following metronidazole exposure during pregnancy did not show an increased risk; however, the ability of these studies to detect such a signal was limited.
<- What is the lowest mortgage loan amount - How hard is it to fly a quadcopter->